A – E
This is the form of the verb we use when someone or something has carried out an action. We use this voice to say what the subject does. For example: Cartam confirmat – He confirms the charter.
Accusative and infinitive clause
A clause that appears after the main verb, which uses a noun in the accusative and the infinitive form of the verb in its construction, such as in the sentence ‘he said that he would perform the service’. This is called an indirect statement in English.
For example: Credo Johannem dedisse Matheo terram. (Literally – I believe John to have given to Matthew the land.) I believe that John has given the land to Matthew.
A case is the particular form a noun, adjective or pronoun takes, that shows its relationship with other words in the sentence. There are six cases in Latin – the nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative and ablative – and these exist in the singular and plural.
When we compare two things, we use the comparative form of an adjective to express which person or thing has a greater or lesser property or quality than the other. For example: He is taller than her.
When we compare two actions or states, we use the comparative form of an adverb to express which action or state has a greater or lesser property or quality than the other. For example: He ran more quickly.
He1 is the new farmer2
In this case, ‘he’; is the subject and ‘farmer’ is the complement. ‘Farmer’ is an extra piece of information about ‘he’, thus both subject and complement appear in the nominative case.
An example of a first conjugation verb is: confirmo, confirmare, confirmavi, confirmatum (1) to confirm.
An example of a second conjugation verb is: habeo, habere, habui, habitum (2) to have.
An example of a third conjugation verb is: duco, ducere, duxi, ductum (3) to lead.
An example of a fourth conjugation verb is: audio, audire, audivi, auditum (4) to hear.
Latin nouns are divided into five groups called declensions. In each declension, the nouns share the same endings. A declension is usually defined by its ending in the nominative singular. For example, nouns in the first declension end ‘-a‘ in the nominative singular. If a declension has a variety of forms in the nominative singular, it will be defined by its endings in the genitive singular. For example, nouns in the third declension end ‘-is‘ in the genitive singular.
F – L
The infinitive form of a verb is that which has no inflection to indicate person or number. In English the infinitive of a verb begins ‘to …’. To make other forms of a verb it is important to know the present infinitive of verbs, which is listed second in a dictionary, with the ending ‘-are‘, ‘-ere‘ or ‘-ire‘. For example: habeo, habere, habui, habitum
In total, there are six infinitives for most verbs, the active present, perfect and future and the passive present, perfect and future.
M – R
The indicative mood expresses facts.
The imperative mood expresses commands.
The subjunctive expresses an element of uncertainty, often a wish, desire, doubt or hope.
|I am happy||Indicative|
|I wish I were happy||Subjunctive|
A participle is formed from a verb but looks and behaves like an adjective. This means that it agrees with the noun it modifies in number, case and gender. In Latin three kinds of participle exist: the present, perfect and future.
This is the form of the verb we use when an action is done to the subject of a sentence. We use this voice to say what happens to the subject. For example: Carta confirmatur – The charter is confirmed.
|First person singular (I)||First person plural (we)|
|Second person singular (you)||Second person plural (you)|
|Third person singular (he/she/it)||Third person plural (they)|
The pluperfect tense (or past perfect in English) is used to describe finished actions that have been completed at a definite point in time in the past. It is easiest to understand it as a past ‘past’ action. For example: I had given…
A preposition is a word which indicates the grammatical relationship between other words in a sentence. In this way, it is similar to an inflection. For example: Ante meridiem – Before midday
|Present infinitive||Perfect active
Reflexive pronouns, such as ‘myself’, ‘yourself’, ‘himself’, ‘herself’, ‘itself’, ‘ourselves’, ‘yourselves’ and ‘themselves’, are used when the complement of the verb is the same as the subject.
S – Z
Many Latin words are made from a stem and an inflection. In a verb, the stem is the part of the word which does not change within a tense. The stem is either made up of, or is the same as, the root.
happy’, the verb ‘were’ is in the subjunctive.
When we compare more than two things, we use the superlative form of an adjective, to express which person or thing has the greatest or least property of a group. For example: He is the tallest.
When we compare more than two actions or states, we use the superlative form of an adverb, to express which person or thing has the greatest or least property of a group. For example: He ran the quickest.
The tense of a verb tells you when the action of the sentence occurred, is occurring or will occur. The tenses in Latin are present, perfect, imperfect, pluperfect, future simple and future perfect.