In order to talk about events that we expect to take place in the future we use the future simple tense. In English, we use ‘will’ to make this tense.
Ego Lucie messuagium dabo – I will give a messuage to Lucy
In Latin, just as with the present and past tenses, we need to know the conjugation a verb belongs to in order to make a future tense.
Remember, Latin verbs are divided into four groups, or conjugations.
In each conjugation, the verbs share the same endings:
An example of a first conjugation verb is: confirmo, confirmare, confirmavi, confirmatum (1) – to confirm.
An example of a second conjugation verb is: habeo, habere, habui, habitum (2) – to have
An example of a third conjugation verb is: duco, ducere, duxi, ductum (3) – to lead
An example of a fourth conjugation verb is: audio, audire, audivi, auditum (4) – to hear
First and second conjugation verbs
In the future simple tense, the endings for first and second conjugation verbs are the same as those in the present.
|-o||I||(first person singular)|
|-s||you||(second person singular)|
|-t||he/she/it||(third person singular)|
|-mus||we||(first person plural)|
|-tis||you||(second person plural)|
|-nt||they||(third person plural)|
The difference is that they are preceded by ‘b-’ in the first person singular, ‘bu-’ in the third person plural and ‘bi-’ for the remaining persons.
The stem for do, dare, dedi, datum (1) is da-
|dabo||I will give|
|dabis||you will give|
|dabit||he/she/it will give|
|dabimus||we will give|
|dabitis||you will give|
|dabunt||they will give|
Third and fourth conjugation verbs
In the future simple tense, the endings for third and fourth conjugation verbs are the same as those in the present. The difference is that they are preceded by ‘e-’.
The first person singular uses ‘a-’ instead of ‘e-’, and the present tense ending of ‘-o’ changes to ‘-m’.
To form the future tense for third conjugation verbs remove the ‘-ere’ from the infinitive form of the verb to get the stem and add the relevant ending.
The stem for concedo, concedere, concessi, concessum (3) is conced–
|concedam||I will grant|
|concedes||you will grant|
|concedet||he/she/it will grant|
|concedemus||we will grant|
|concedetis||you will grant|
|concedent||they will grant|
To form the future tense for fourth conjugation verbs remove the ‘-re’ from the infinitive form of the verb to get the stem and add the relevant ending.
The stem for venio, venire, veni, ventum (4) is veni–
|veniam||I will come|
|venies||you will come|
|veniet||he/she/it will come|
|veniemus||we will come|
|venietis||you will come|
|venient||they will come|
Two irregular verbs you will frequently come across are ‘esse’, ‘to be’, and ‘ire’, ‘to go’. It is well worth learning their future forms.
The future tense of sum, esse, fui, – ‘to be’ is irregular and is formed as follows:
|ero||I will be|
|eris||you will be|
|erit||he/she/it will be|
|erimus||we will be|
|eritis||you will be|
|erunt||they will be|
The future tense of eo, ire, ivi, itum ‘to go’ is formed as follows:
|ibo||I will go|
|ibis||you will go|
|ibit||he/she/it will go|
|ibimus||we will go|
|ibitis||you will go|
|ibunt||they will go|
Are you confident with:
- The meaning of a future simple tense?
- The form of a future simple tense?
- The meaning of the irregular verbs ‘esse’ and ‘ire’ in the future simple tense?
- The form of the irregular verbs ‘esse’ and ‘ire’ in the future simple tense?