Lesson 4 – ‘Non’, second conjugation verbs, numbers

non – not

It’s easy to turn a sentence into a negative sentence. Put ‘non’ in front of the verb:

agricola laborat The farmer works
agricola non laborat The farmer does not work
regina cartas confirmat The queen confirms the charters
regina cartas non confirmat The queen does not confirm the charters

Second conjugation verbs

These end in ‘-ere’.

debere to owe
movere to move
habere to have
sedere to sit
iacere to lie, be situated
tenere to hold
monere to warn, summon
videre to see

To conjugate these verbs, remove the ‘-ere’ and add these endings:

Latin English Latin English
-eo I habeo I have
-es you habes you have
-et he/she/it habet he/she/it has
-emus we habemus we have
-etis you habetis you have
-ent they habent they have

The key letter in these endings is ‘e’.

dominus Stephanus maneria tenet Lord Stephen holds the manors.
ecclesiam video I see the church.
cartas terris tenemus We hold the charters for the lands.
dominos monemus We warn the lords.
Gregorius testamentum non habet Gregory does not have a will.

Handy hints for conjugating verbs

All verbs that end with

-o relate to I
-t relate to he/she/it
-mus relate to we
-nt relate to they

Remember: this applies to all conjugations.


quattuor (sometimes quatuor) four
quinque five
sex six
septem seven
octo eight
novem nine
decem ten
centum one hundred

These numbers do not decline. (We will cover numbers one, two and three in Lesson 5.)

dominus quattuor maneria tenet The lord holds four manors.
octo parochie sunt There are eight parishes.
centum dominos monemus We summon one hundred lords.
vidua quinque maneria ecclesie legat The widow leaves five manors to the church.

Introducing new nouns

From now on, new nouns will be written as they appear in the Latin word list.

They will be given in the nominative singular, followed by the genitive singular ending. The gender of the noun will be given, and its meaning in English.

For example:

marca, -e (f.) mark

marca is the nominative singular
-e is the genitive singular ending
f. is the gender (feminine)
mark is the meaning of the word in English

The genitive singular ending is very important, as it tells you which declension the noun belongs to.


Are you confident with

  • the handy hints for conjugating verbs?
  • how to make a sentence negative?
  • how to conjugate a second conjugation verb like habere?
  • how to count from four to ten in Latin?
  • the numbers 4 to 10 and 100?

What next?