Stage 1 Latin word list

A – B – C – D – E – F – G – H – I – J – L – M – N – O – P – Q – R – S – T – U – V – W

This is a list of the Latin words used in the Stage 1 lessons.
It is set out so that you can

  • find each word easily
  • recognise whether it is a noun, verb, adjective etc.
  • identify which declension it belongs to (if it’s a noun or adjective) or which conjugation it belongs to (if it’s a verb)
  • know what to do next to decline it

By using our word list, you will gain practice and confidence with Latin.

When you complete the tutorial, you will have the confidence to use a Latin-English dictionary. We suggest R E Latham, Revised Medieval Latin Word-list, (London, published for the British Academy by the Oxford University Press, 1973).

Other Latin dictionaries are set out in the same manner as our word list. However, you may find that they may provide less information.

Remember that if you look up a medieval, Tudor or Stuart word in a Classical Latin dictionary, it may give a different and inappropriate meaning.

How to use the word list

Remember that this word list gives the most common medieval spelling of each word. It does not list the many variants of the word. In particular, in Tudor and Stuart documents you may find that the word is spelt with an ‘ae’ instead of an ‘e’.


Nouns are given in the nominative singular, followed by the genitive singular ending. The gender of the noun is given and its meaning in English.
Look at our example of terra:

terra, -e (f.) land

  • terra‘ is the nominative singular form of the word
  • -e‘ is the genitive singular ending
  • ‘(f.)’ is the gender – feminine

If you know the genitive singular of a noun, you can work out which case it belongs to.
If you know which case it belongs to, you can work out how to decline it.

The genitive singular of third declension nouns is particularly important. Therefore, both the nominative and genitive singular of third declension nouns is given in full.


Verbs are given in parts (called the principal parts).
Look at our example of habere:

habeo, habere, habui, habitum (2) to have

  • habeo‘ is the ‘I’ form of the present tense
  • habere‘ is the infinitive
  • habui‘ is the ‘I’ form of the past tense
  • habitum‘ is the supine (not covered in this series of lessons)

With this information, you will be able to conjugate each verb.
Sometimes the supine is not given.


These are all noted. For first and second declension adjectives, the masculine, feminine and neuter nominative singular forms are given, with their meaning.
For example:

dimidius, -a, -um (adjective) half

  • dimidius‘ is the masculine nominative singular
  • -a‘ is the feminine nominative singular ending
  • -um‘ is the neuter nominative singular ending

Some first and second declension adjectives end ‘er’ in the masculine nominative singular. Most lose the ‘e’ of ‘er’ when declined.
For example:

pulcher, puchra, pulchrum (adjective) beautiful

For third declension adjectives, either

  • the masculine/feminine and neuter nominative singular forms are given, with the meaning – for example, omnis, -e (adjective) all


  • the nominative and genitive forms are given, with the meaning – for example, ingens, ingentis (adjective) huge

For an explanation of this, see lesson seven.


The masculine, feminine and neuter nominative singular forms are given, with their meaning. All pronouns are noted.
For example:

qui, que, quod (pronoun) who, whom, which


These are all noted, with their meaning.
For example:

ubi (adverb) where


These are all noted, with the case they take and their meaning.
For example:

ante (preposition + accusative) before


These abbreviations are used in the word list:

  • (f.) means feminine
  • (m.) means masculine
  • (n.) means neuter


Where necessary, any further explanation of a word is given in brackets.
For example:

probo, probare, probavi, provatum (1) to prove (a will)

Word list


(before a consonant)/ab (before a vowel) (preposition + ablative) by, from

abbas, abbatis (m.) abbot

ac and

acra, -e (f.) acre

ad (preposition + accusative) towards, to, for, at (implies movement towards)

Adam, Ade (m.) Adam

adventus, -us (m.) appearance in court, arrival, Advent

aecclesia, -e (f.) church

Agnes, Agnetis (f.) Agnes

agricola, -e (m.) farmer

Alexander, Alexandri (m.) Alexander

Alicia, -e (f.) Alice

alius, alia, aliud (adjective) the other

alter, altera, alterum (adjective) the other (of two things)

Amabila, -e, (f.) Amabila

amen  amen (Hebrew word; does not decline)

Anglia, -e (f.) England

Anglicus, -i (m.) Englishman

anima, -e (f.) (dative and ablative plural animabus) soul

animal, animalis (n.) animal

Anna, -e (f.) Anna

Annunciatio, Annunciationis (f.) Annunciation

ante (preposition + accusative) before

antiquus, -a, -um (adjective) old

appono, apponere, apposui, appositum (3) to affix

Aprilis, Aprilis (m.) April

apud (preposition + accusative) at, by, near, to, towards

aquaticus, -a, -um (adjective) worked by water

Archangelus, -i (m.) archangel

argentum, -i (n.) silver

armiger, armigeri (m.) squire, esquire

audio, audire, audivi, auditum (4) to hear

Augustus, -i (m.) August

aurifaber, aurifabri (m.) goldsmith

ava, -e (f.) grandmother

avisamentum, -i (n.) advice

avus, -i (m.) grandfather


baro, baronis (m.) baron, tenant-in-chief

beatus, -a, -um (adjective) blessed

bene (adverb) well

Benedictus, -i (m.) Benedict

bonus, -a, -um (adjective) good

bosca, –e (f.) wood, woodland, firewood

boscus, -i (m.) wood, woodland, firewood

Breve, brevis (n.) writ

burgagium, -ii (n.) burgage


calcar, calcaris (n.) spur

capio, capere, cepi, captum (3) to take, seize, rent

Carolus, -i (m.) Charles

carta, -e (f.) charter

caruca, -e (f.) plough

castrum, -i (n.) castle

catallum, -i (n.) chattel

celeriter (adverb) quickly

centum one hundred

centum et unus one hundred and one

Christina, -e (f.) Christina

Christoferus, -i (m.) Christopher

civis, civis (m.) citizen [genitive plural civium]

clavis, clavis (f.) key [genitive plural clavium]

clericus, -i (m.) clerk

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognitum (3) to know, get to know

comitatus, -us (m.) county, earldom, county court

communis, -e (adjective) common

concedo, concedere, concessi, concessum (3) to concede, grant, allow

concordia, -e (f.) agreement

condo, condere, condidi, conditum (3) to make (a will)

confirmo, confirmare, confirmavi, confirmatum (1) to confirm

conquestus, -us (m.) conquest, the Norman conquest of England in 1066

consilium, -ii (n.) counsel, council

coram (preposition + ablative) in the presence of, before

coronator, coronatoris (m.) coroner

crastinum, -i (n.) morrow

croftum, -i (n.) croft, enclosed piece of arable land

cum (preposition + ablative) with

curia, -e (f.) court


dampnum, -i (n.) damage

data given, dated

datum given, dated

de (preposition + ablative) from, concerning, of, for

debeo, debere, debui, debitum (2) to owe, to be obliged to do (something)

decem ten (does not decline)

December, Decembris (m.) December

defensor, defensoris (m.) defender

dico, dicere, dixi, dictum (3) to say

dies Dominica Sunday

dies Iovis Thursday

dies Lune Monday

dies Martis Tuesday

dies Mercurii Wednesday

dies Sabbati Saturday

dies Veneris Friday

dies, diei (m.) day

dilectus, -a, -um (adjective) beloved

dimidius, -a, -um (adjective) half

do, dare, dedi, datum (1) to give

domina, -e (f.) lady, Lady

Dominica, -e (f.) Sunday

dominicus, -a, -um (adjective) demesne

domus, -us (f.) house

ducenti, -ae, -a two hundred

duo two

duodecim twelve

duodeviginti eighteen


(before a consonant)/ex (before a vowel) (preposition + ablative) from, out of

Eboracum, -i (n.) York

ecclesia, -e (f.) church

edifico, edificare, edificavi, edificatum (1) to build

Edwardus, -i (m.) Edward

ego I

eius (pronoun, genitive of iseaid) of him, of her, of it

Elias Elias

Elizabetha, -e (f.) Elizabeth

eorum, earum, eorum (pronoun, genitive of is, ea, id, masculine, feminine, neuter plural) of them, theirs

episcopus, -i (m.) bishop

Ernegis Ernegis

escambium, -ii (n.) exchange

esse to be (see sum)

et and

etas, etatis (f.) age

executor, executoris (m.) executor

exitus, -us (m.) profits, exit, revenue

expensum, -i (n.) money paid, payment, expense


faber, fabri (m.) smith

facio, facere, feci, factum (3) to make, do

falso (adverb) falsely

Februarius, -i (m.) February

feodum, -i (n.) fee, fief

fera, -e (f.) beast of the chase

festum, -i (n.) feast

fidelis, -e (adjective) faithful

fides, fidei (f.) faith

filia, -e (f.) (dative and ablative plural
filiabus) daughter

finalis, -e (adjective) final

finis, finis (m. sometimes f.) fine, boundary, end, limit

franciplegius, -ii (m.) frankpledge

frater, fratris (m.) brother

fundatio, fundationis (f.) foundation


garderoba, -e (f.) wardrobe

generosus, -i (m.) gentleman

genu, -us (n.) knee

Georgius, -ii (m.) George

Ghida, -e (f.) Gytha

Gilbertus, -i (m.) Gilbert

Gracia, -e (f.) Grace

gracia, -e (f.) grace

gratia, -e (f.) grace

Gulielmus, -i (m.) William


habeo, habere, habui, habitum (2) to have

Henricus, -i (m.) Henry

Heraldus, -i (m.) Harold

heres, heredis (m., f.) heir

hereditarius, -ii (m.) heir

Hibernia, -e (f.) Ireland

hic, hec, hoc (adjective and pronoun) this, he, she, it

hic (adverb) here

hida, -e (f.) hide (The amount of land which could support a household, often supposed to be 120 acres)

homo, hominis (m.) man

Hugo, Hugonis (m.) Hugh

huiusmodi this


iaceo, iacere, iacui, iacitum (2) to lie, to be situated

ibi there

ibidem (adverb) at the same place, in the same place

idem, eadem, idem (pronoun) the same

ideo (adverb) therefore

ille, illa, ilud (pronoun and adjective) that, he, she, it

imperator, imperatoris (m.) emperor

imperpetuum (adverb) forever, in perpetuity

in (preposition + accusative) into, onto (preposition + ablative) in, on

ingens, ingentis (adjective) huge

ingressus, -us (m.) entry, right of entry

inspeximus inspeximus (A kind of charter which testifies to the fact that an earlier charter has been inspected and confirmed)

inter (preposition + accusative) among, between

ipse, ipsa, ipsum (pronoun and adjective) self, he himself, she herself, itself, aforesaid

is, ea, id (pronoun and adjective) he, she, it, this, that

Isabella, -e (f.) Isabella

item (adverb) likewise, moreover, also

iuxta (preposition + accusative) next to, near, according to


Januarius, -i (m.) January

Johanna, -e (f.) Joanna

Johannes, Johannis (m.) John

Julius, -i (m.) July

Junius, -i (m.) June

jurator, juratoris (m.) juror

jus, juris (n.) right, law


laboro, laborare, laboravi, laboratum (1) to work

legalis, -e (adjective) lawful

lego, legare, legavi, legatum (1) to leave, bequeath

liber, -era, -erum (adjective) free

libere (adverb) freely

libra, -e (f.) pound (currency)

littera, -e (f.) letter

Londinia, -e (f.) Londinium-ii (n) London


magister, magistri (m.) master

magnus, -a, -um (adjective) great, big

Maius, -i (m.) May

manerium, -ii (n.) manor

manus, -us (f.) hand

marca, -e (f.) mark (unit of currency)

mare, maris (n.) sea [genitive plural marium]

Maria, -e (f.) Mary

martir, martiris (m.) martyr

Martius, -i (m.) March

mater, matris (m.) mother

Mathildis, Mathildis (f.) Matilda (note Matilda can also be Mathilda, – e (f)).

medietas, medietatis (f.) moiety, half

mensis, -is (m.) month

mercatum, -i (n) – market

meridies, meridiei (m.) midday, south

meus, mea, meum (pronoun) my

Michael, Michaelis (m.) Michael

michi, mihi (pronoun, dative case) to me

miles, militis (m.) knight

mille one thousand

missa, -e (f.) mass

mitto, mittere, misi, missum (3) to send

modo (adverb) now

modus, -i (m.) manner, method

monachus, -i (m.) monk

monasterium, -ii (n.) monastery

moneo, monere, monui, monitum (2) to warn, advise

mors, mortis (f.) death

moveo, movere, movi, motum (2) to move


navis, navis (f.) ship [genitive plural navium]

neuter, neutra, neutrum (adjective) neither (of two things)

nomen, nominis (n.) name

non (adverb) not

nonaginta ninety

nongenti nine hundred

nos we

noster, nostra, nostrum (pronoun) our, ours

novem nine (does not decline)

November, Novembris (m.) November

novus, -a, -um (adjective) new

nullus, -a, -um (adjective) no, none

nunc (adverb) now

nuper (adverb) former, lately


O! Oh!

obeo, obire, obii, obitum to die

obitus, -us (m.) death, anniversary of a death

octava, -e (f. and plural) octave

octingenti eight hundred

octo eight (does not decline)

October, Octobris (m.) October

octoginta eighty

omnis, -e (adjective) all

ordino, ordinare, ordinavi, ordinatum (1) to order, appoint

oro, orare, oravi, oratum (1) to pray

ostendo, ostendere, ostendi, ostentum (3) to show


panis, -is (m.) bread

papa, -e (m.) pope

parca, -e (f.) park

parcus, -i (m.) park

parens, parentis (m. and f.) parent

parochialis, -e (adjective) parochial, parish

pars, partis (f.) (genitive plural partium) part

parsona, -e (m.) parson

pastura, -e (f.) pasture

pater, patris (m.) father

pecunia, -e (f.) livestock

per (preposition + accusative) by, through, during

persona, -e (f.), parson

pertinentia, -e (f.) appurtenance

peto, petere, petivi, petitum (3) to petition, require, seek

Petrus, -i (m.) Peter

placitum, -i (n.) plea

plegius, -ii (m.) pledge

pons, pontis (m.) bridge [genitive plural pontium]

porcus, -i (m.) pig

post (preposition + accusative) after

pre (preposition + ablative) before

predictus, -a, -um (adjective) aforesaid

presens, presentis (adjective) present

prior, prioris (m.) prior

prius (adverb) before

pro (preposition + ablative) for, during, as far as, in accordance with, in return for

probatum proved see probare

probo, probare, probavi, probatum (1) to prove (a will)

puer, pueri (m.) boy

pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum (adjective) beautiful


quadraginta forty

quadringenti four hundred

quattuor four

quattuordecim fourteen

qui, que, quod (pronoun) who, whom, which

quiete (adverb) peacefully

quietus, -a, -um (adjective) freely, quit

quindecim fifteen

quingenti five hundred

quinquaginta fifty

quinque five

quod because, that (after ‘to know’, ‘to say’)


Radulphus, -i (m.) Ralph

recognosco, recognoscere, recognovi, recognitum (3) to acknowledge

redditus, -us (m.) rent

reddo, reddere, reddidi, redditum (3) to give back, pay, surrender, yield

regina, -e (f.) queen

res, rei (f.) a thing

rex, regis (m.) king

Ricardus, -i (m.) Richard

Robertus, -i (m.) Robert

Rogerus, -i (m.) Roger

rotulus, -i (m.) roll, record


sacramentum, -i (n.) oath, sacrament

sanctus, -a, -um (adjective) saint

sapiens, sapientis (adjective) wise

sciant omnes know all men

sciant presentes et futuri know all [men] present and future

scilicet (adverb) namely

scio, scire, scivi, scitum (4) to know

scriptum, -i (n.) writing

se defendo, defendere, defendi, defensum (3) to be assessed at

se himself

secundum (preposition + accusative) according to

Sed (set) but

sedecim sixteen

sedeo, sedere, sedi, sessum (2) to sit

semper (adverb) always

sepe (adverb) often

septem seven (does not decline)

September, Septembris (m.) September

septemdecim seventeen

septendecim seventeen

septingenti seven hundred

septuaginta seventy

Sequens, sequentis following

sequor (3) to follow

servicium, -ii (n.) service

sescenti six hundred

sex six

sexaginta sixty

shopa, -e (f.) shop

sicut (adverb) just as

sigillum, -i (n.) seal

silva, -e (f.) wood

silvaticus, -a, -um (adjective) wild

Simo, Simonis (m.) Simon

sine (preposition + ablative) without

soca, -e (f.) soc

socum, -i (n.) soc

solidus, -i (m.) shilling

solummodo only

solus, -a, -um (adjective) alone, only

solvo, solvere, solvi, solutum (3) to pay

soror, sororis (f.) sister

sub (preposition + accusative) up to, (preposition + ablative) under

subito suddenly

subsequens, subsequentis the following (adjective)

sum, esse, fui to be

summa, -e (f.) sum

super (preposition + accusative) over, (preposition + ablative) upon

suus, sua, suum (pronoun) his, her, its, their (own)


tandem (adverb) at length

teignus, -i (m.) thane

tempus, temporis (n.) time, period

tenementum, -i (n.) tenement

teneo, tenere, tenui, tentum (2) to hold

terminus, -i (m.) term, period, end, boundary, limit

terra, -e (f.) land

testamentum, -i (n.) will, testament

testimonium, -ii (n.) witness, testimony

testis, testis (m., f.) witness

Thomas, -e (m.) Thomas

tofta, –e (f.) house, toft, house and outbuildings

totalis, -e (adjective) total

totus, -a, -um (adjective) all, whole

trecenti three hundred

tredecim thirteen

tres, tria three (does not decline)

triginta thirty

tunc (adverb) then

turris, turris (f.) tower

tuus, tua, tuum (pronoun) your, yours (one person)


ubi (adverb) where, when

ullus, -a, -um (adjective) any

undecim eleven

undeviginti nineteen

unus, -a, -um (adjective) one

uter, utra, utrum (adjective) which (of two things)

uxor, uxoris (f.) wife


venerabilis, -e, (adjective) venerable

venio, venire, veni, ventum (4) to come

verbum, –i (n.) word

versus (preposition + accusative) against

vester, vestra, vestrum (pronoun) your

vetus, veteris (adjective) old

via, -e (f.) road, street

vicarius, -ii (m.) vicar

videlicet (adverb) namely, to wit, that is

video, videre, vidi, visum (2) to see

vidua, -e (f.) widow

vigilia, -e (f.) eve

viginti duo twenty two

viginti novem twenty nine

viginti octo twenty eight

viginti quattuor twenty four

viginti quinque twenty five

viginti septem twenty seven

viginti sex twenty six

viginti tres twenty three

viginti twenty

viginti unus twenty one

villa, -e (f.) vill, town

vir, viri (m.) man, husband

virgata, -e (f.) virgate

virgo, virginis (f.) virgin

visus, -us (m.) view

vita, -e (f.) life

voco, vocare, vocavi, vocatum (1) to call


Walterus, -i (m.) Walter

wasta, -e (f.) waste

Westmonasterium, -ii (n.) Westminster

Wilhelmus, -i (m.) William