How to look for records of... Cabinet and its committees
How can I view the records covered in this guide?
How many are online?
1. Why use this guide?
This is a guide to records of the Cabinet held at The National Archives. The Cabinet is the supreme decision-making body in government, dealing with the major issues of the day and the Government’s overall strategy.
During the course of the 18th and 19th Centuries, power was transferred from the Monarch to the Cabinet and the Prime Minister. The evolution of the Cabinet into the centre-piece of the British political system was a gradual process: by the mid-nineteenth century it was firmly established as the most senior decision-making body in government. The modern Cabinet system (including the Cabinet Office) was introduced in 1916-1922 by David Lloyd George.
The guide provides details of the changing ways in which the affairs and decisions of Cabinet have been recorded since 1916, and what you need to know to find these records either online or at The National Archives’ site in Kew. If you are interested in why and how major decisions of the British Government have been made since the First World War, then this guide will prove useful.
2. How to access records of the Cabinet
Our records are grouped by ‘departments’, each with its own unique catalogue reference (a letter code). Each department is made up of multiple record series, all with their own unique references based on the department reference. The department reference for Cabinet papers in our catalogue is CAB and our catalogue references begin with CAB followed by two or three numbers, e.g. CAB 68/5/1 a memorandum on civil defence.
You should use the National Archives reference when requesting documents or copies or citing references.
Some Cabinet papers between 1916 and 1993 can be accessed and downloaded by browsing the archived Cabinet Papers website (see section 16 below).
2.1 Use our catalogue to search for Cabinet Minutes and Memoranda
The Cabinet Minutes and Memoranda are digitised and downloadable from The National Archives catalogue. Catalogue descriptions are made up of agenda items discussed at each Cabinet meeting or titles of the memoranda (papers discussed by the Cabinet), which makes limited keyword searching possible.
To narrow your search to a specific series of records within the CAB department, use this guide to identify the CAB series covering the period or type of document you are interested in.
Search from our advanced search screen
- Enter a keyword (bear in mind catalogue descriptions may just be agenda items) in the advanced search in our catalogue
- Include the relevant CAB series reference in your search terms (you can include more than one series but be aware that a search term that finds minutes from a meeting, may not find memoranda from the same meeting)
- Enter a year (or range of years)
- Sort your search results into Reference order, this will sort them by date and by series (the type of document)
- Click on the relevant search result to download or order the document
Example of a search:
The search above finds these results
Your search is unlikely to find all the documents relating to a particular meeting, if you want to find other documents you may need to use the original departmental references of the papers.
2.2 Published guides
The Public Record Office, the predecessor of The National Archives, published a number of handbooks describing the papers of the Cabinet Office and the CAB series in which they can be found. These handbooks will help you to find your way around Cabinet records. They are available at our site in Kew and in major reference libraries. You can search for the availability of each title on The National Archives’ library catalogue by clicking on the links below.
- PRO Handbook No 4 – List of Cabinet Papers, 1880-1914 (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1964)
- PRO Handbook No 6 – List of Papers of the Committee of Imperial Defence to 1914 (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1964)
- PRO Handbook No 9 – List of Cabinet Papers, 1915-1916 (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1966)
- PRO Handbook No 11 – The Records of the Cabinet Office to 1922 (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1966)
- PRO Handbook No 15 – The Second World War: A Guide to Documents in the Public Record Office (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1972)
- PRO Handbook No 17 – The Cabinet Office to 1945 (Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1975)
3. Original references
The Cabinet Office had its own reference system to identify documents and these codes are present in our catalogue descriptions. The references are made up of three elements
- A letter code for the type of document, for example, WM
- The last two digits of the year in brackets, (40)
- A number denoting the meeting for that year, 148
WM (40) 148, is the original reference for Conclusions of the 148th War Cabinet meeting of 1940. The National Archives reference is CAB 65/7/43.
To find other documents from the same meeting look for the year and meeting number. CAB 66/7/28 has the original reference WP (40) 148 and is a memorandum presented at the same meeting. It can be found by browsing CAB 66 for memoranda in 1940 and looking for the code which includes (40) 148
The letter codes used and the format of the original reference varies over time but the year and meeting number is a constant feature. The codes are useful because they may be cited in publications and are used as references within cabinet papers.
4. Cabinet Minutes and Memoranda
Cabinet Minutes and Memoranda are probably the most important categories of Cabinet Papers, for researchers who want to find records discussing the major issues of the day and government strategy.
Cabinet memoranda are circulated to members of the Cabinet and other ministers for information or as a basis for discussion. There are indexes to memoranda at The National Archives in Kew, together with the memoranda of the War Cabinet of 1939 to 1945, in CAB 66, and the post-war Cabinet, in CAB 129. The memoranda of the pre-war Cabinets are in CAB 24 and the copies of Cabinet papers from 1880 to 1916 are in CAB 37.
These records are arranged in the following series (click on the series link for a fuller description of contents).
Description and letter code
|Minutes and conclusions, WC
|Memoranda (War Cabinet,
|Minutes and conclusions (War Cabinet, WM and Cabinet, CM Series)
|Memoranda (War Cabinet, WP and Cabinet, CP Series)
|Memoranda (WP(G) Series, war cabinet memoranda that were more widely distributed)
|Memoranda (WP(R) Series), reports to Cabinet from other government departments
|Minutes and conclusions (CM and CC Series)
|Cabinet: Memoranda (CP and C Series)
5. Cabinet conclusions
Cabinet conclusions (called minutes until August 1919) are normally taken by the Secretary to the Cabinet or one of the Secretary’s assistants. They are not verbatim accounts of meetings but consist of summaries of the discussion together with a note of the decisions reached.
Cabinet minutes or conclusions were also prefixed with a letter code. During peacetime the codes alternate with Prime Ministers between CM (Cabinet minutes) and CC (Cabinet conclusions). During the First World War WC was used and WM in the Second World War.
5.1 Confidential annexes
Certain conclusions were regarded as being especially secret and were recorded in the Secretary’s Standard File and became Confidential Annexes. Those for 1917-1939 are in CAB 23/13. Those from 1939 to 1948 are contained in separate volumes for each year located in CAB 65 and CAB 128. Confidential annexes for 1949 to September 1951 are in CAB 128/21. From October 1951 they are included with each volume of Cabinet conclusions. From this period the Confidential Annexes are also described in our catalogue as ‘most confidential’ records.
6. Cabinet records before 1916
Until the Cabinet Secretariat was formed in December 1916 no formal records of Cabinet meetings, such as minutes and conclusions, were kept. The only record of Cabinet decisions was contained in letters written by the Prime Minister to the Sovereign after each meeting.
These letters vary a great deal in length and detail and are now preserved in the Royal Archives at Windsor. Microfilms of the letters from 1837 to 1867 have been published by Harvester Press and can be viewed at the British Library at Boston Spa and other academic institutions. Photocopies of the letters for 1868-1916 are available at The National Archives at Kew in record series CAB 41. Photocopies of Cabinet papers held in private and other collections for 1880-1916 are in record series CAB 37. For detailed lists of these papers see PRO Handbooks 4 and 9.
Some eight hundred Cabinet papers that had been returned to the Cabinet Office by former Ministers or their executors are in CAB 1, which to a great extent duplicates CAB 37.
7. Cabinet records during the First World War
In November 1914 the Cabinet established the War Council to advise on the general conduct of the war, but the Council met infrequently and was replaced in May 1915 by the Dardanelles Committee which was concerned, as the name suggests, mainly with the Gallipoli expedition. The Dardanelles Committee in turn was replaced in November 1915 by the War Committee, with responsibility for the whole range of naval and military operations and war policy in general. These various bodies were assisted by the permanent secretariat of the Committee for Imperial Defence (CID), which kept detailed minutes and organised the issuing of memoranda. The papers and minutes are in CAB 22, with photocopies chronologically arranged in CAB 42. A more detailed account of the Cabinet at this time, together with a list of the papers issued by the Cabinet can be found in PRO Handbook 9. For more advice on the records of the CID see Section 8 below.
Records of Cabinet meetings until 1916 can be found in Prime Minister’s Letters in CAB 41 and in papers circulated for discussion in CAB 37. It soon became clear that a better system was needed for conducting Cabinet business.
When Lloyd George became Prime Minister on 7 December 1916, the secretariat of the CID, under Sir Maurice Hankey, became the nucleus of a new Cabinet Office serving a small War Cabinet. The main series of papers circulated to the War Cabinet, classified as GT, are in CAB 24. The minutes and conclusions of the War Cabinet were noted for the first time and are in CAB 23.
8. The Committees of Imperial Defence
8.1 What were the Committees of Imperial Defence?
The Committee of Imperial Defence, established in 1902, was an advisory body with no executive powers. With the assistance of numerous sub-committees it advised the Cabinet and government departments on both the general principles of defence policy and their detailed application. The Prime Minister was its Chairman and only permanent member. A permanent secretariat established in 1904 became the Cabinet Secretariat in 1916.
During the First World War the functions of the CID were transferred to other committees and departments. Its first post-war meeting was in June 1920, and subsequently the CID met regularly until September 1939 when its functions were assumed by the War Cabinet. It was not revived after the war.
8.2 Records of the Committees of Imperial Defence
Minutes of the CID and the Standing Defence Sub-Committee are in CAB 2. Circulated papers of the CID are in CAB 3-6 and those of the Standing Defence Sub-Committee in CAB 34. Files of the CID before December 1916 are in CAB 17, and inter-war files in CAB 21. There are some miscellaneous records in CAB 18.
Before 1914 the CID had four permanent sub committees: Colonial (later Overseas) Defence (whose papers are in CAB 7-11); Home Ports (later Home) Defence (CAB 12-13); Co-ordination of Departmental Action (CAB 15) and Air (CAB 14). After 1918 only the first three were revived and they were subsequently augmented by a number of standing and ad hoc committees whose papers are in CAB 16, CAB 34-36, CAB 46-57 and CAB 60.
A list of papers of the CID until 1914 can be found in PRO Handbook 6 and there is a detailed history in PRO Handbook 17.
9. Cabinet records in the inter-war years
With the return of peace, Lloyd George replaced the small War Cabinet with a traditional Cabinet of 20 members. At its first meeting on 4 November 1919, the new Cabinet decided to retain the methods of record keeping used by the War Cabinet.
10. The War Cabinet 1939-1945
From September 1939 to May 1945 the Cabinet was replaced by a smaller War Cabinet with a membership varying between five and ten and including both departmental and non-departmental ministers. There was no change in the way in which decisions were recorded and papers circulated.
Further details about the War Cabinet are to be found in PRO Handbooks 15 and 17.
11. Cabinet records of the post-war period
On the defeat of Germany in May 1945 the War Cabinet was dissolved and a caretaker Cabinet was formed by Churchill. The conclusions and memoranda of this Cabinet are to be found in CAB 65 and CAB 66 respectively.
12. Cabinet committees
12.1 What are Cabinet committees?
To assist the work of Cabinet, the government relies on the employment of numerous Cabinet committees. These committees reduce the burden on the Cabinet itself by enabling collective decisions to be taken by a smaller group of Ministers. Cabinet committees are of two types: standing committees which last for the duration of a Prime Minister’s term of office; and ad hoc committees which are convened to handle a single issue and are usually short lived.
12.2 Records of standing committees
Examples of standing committees, for which there are substantial sets of records at The National Archives, include the Committee of Imperial Defence (1904-1939), the Joint Intelligence Committee (1947-1968; see also our research guide to Intelligence records), the Defence Committee (1946-1963) and its successor the Defence and Overseas Policy Committee (1964-1980) The records of other standing committees, including the Atomic Energy Committee, the Economic Policy Committee and Home Affairs Committee, are to be found in CAB 134. Standing committees can be further divided into ministerial committees composed of members of parliament and official committees composed of senior civil servants. Every individual committee was allocated a series of letters by which it was identified. The Economic Policy Committee was designated EPC while the Home Affairs Committee was known as HA. These can be searched on the catalogue using the original file reference.
12.3 Records of ad hoc committees
The records of ad hoc committees are found in CAB 130. Each ad hoc committee is given a unique prefix, either MISC (miscellaneous) or GEN (general) and a number. The Committee on Subversive Activities, for example, was known as GEN 183. If a GEN or MISC number is known, the committee can be located in the catalogue using its original file reference.
12.4 Other records of Cabinet committees
The details of most committees and sub-committees comprising the Cabinet committee structure from 1945 are to be found in the Committee Organisation Books located in CAB 161. Additionally, some of the PRO Handbooks listed in section 2 can also provide helpful insights into Cabinet committees.
13. Cabinet Secretaries’ Notebooks (CAB 195)
The Cabinet Secretaries’ Notebooks (CAB 195) are the handwritten notes which the Cabinet Secretary makes when he attends Cabinet Meetings as the Senior Secretary. They are longhand notebooks compiled by Norman Brook, Burke Trend, John Hunt, and Robert Armstrong at Cabinet meetings and some other meetings of ministers, during their respective terms of office, and they begin in 1942 and extend to 1965.
The notebooks provide more detailed accounts of the meetings than appear in the printed records, so they are closer to a verbatim account of who said what, as compared with the formal minutes.
There are gaps for the period 1942 to 1945 – there are no Notebooks for the whole of 1944, for example. Cabinet Secretary Edward Bridges destroyed them, following the security protocols of the time. The CAB 195 records have been digitised, but they have not been itemised on the Catalogue.
Images of the handwritten originals can be downloaded from the Cabinet Papers website while modern transcriptions are available through the National Archives catalogue.
14. Records of the Cabinet Secretariat
The Registered Files of the Cabinet and War Cabinets beginning in 1916 and containing papers on many aspects of British policy both domestic and foreign are in CAB 21. The records continue from 1966 in CAB 164 and CAB 165. These series also contain papers about the machinery of the Cabinet Secretariat. There is also a supplementary series of registered files (CAB 104) that were originally closed for 50 or 75 years.
15. Macmillan Cabinet Papers, 1957-1963
Prime Minister’s papers and Cabinet Office conclusions and memoranda (CAB 128 and CAB 129) for the years of the Macmillan Administration 1957-1963, can be accessed at AMDigital (institutional subscription required or free to view onsite at The National Archives at Kew). Also available through this resource are the records of some key Cabinet committees from series CAB 134, including matters related to defence and nuclear policy, and changes affecting Britain’s relationship with former dependent colonies.
See also our Prime Minister’s Office research guide.
16. Cabinet papers website
The Cabinet Papers website is a useful educational resource for students and other researchers looking for examples of crucial Cabinet documents which are easy to find and downloadable and relate to particular subject themes, for example, ‘law, liberty and society’.
In line with our general policy for older web resources, the Cabinet Papers website is now hosted securely in the UK Government Web Archive. Please note that this resource only has material up to 1993, so the Catalogue on the National Archives website remains the best means of access to digitised Cabinet papers.
Large pdf files of some Cabinet papers can be downloaded from the archived website. Although large and not itemised, as they are in our catalogue, many of these files can be word searched within the downloaded pdf.
17. Further reading
Tessa Blackstone and William Plowden, Inside the Think Tank: Advising the Cabinet 1971-1983 (William Heinemann Ltd, 1988)
Peter Hennessy, Cabinet (Basil Blackwell, 1986)
Peter Hennessy, Whitehall (Pimlico, 2001)
Arthur Berriedale Keith, The British Cabinet System (Stevens and Son, 1952)
John P Mackintosh, The British Cabinet (Stevens and Son, 1977)
Richard Rose, Ministers and Ministries: A Functional Analysis (Clarendon Press, 1987)