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An industrial Nation Timeline
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1831 First Cholera epidemic resulted in 13,000 deaths.

1842 Chadwick's Report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population of Great Britain. He showed that life expectancy was much higher for people living in the countryside.

1845 Report of the Royal Commission on the 'Health of Large Towns and Populous Districts' published.

1848 Second Cholera epidemic resulted in 21,000 deaths.The First Public Health Act set up a General Board of Health in London, which could create local Boards of Health where 10% of the ratepayers requested one and where the death rate was over 23 per 1,000. The Act only lasted for five years and the General Board disappeared in 1858 because of opposition to Chadwick's methods.

1853 Third Cholera epidemic resulted in 15,000 deaths.

1854 Dr. John Snow proved that cholera was caused by a polluted water supply.

1858 The 'Great Stink', the River Thames became so polluted that Parliament had to stop sitting because of the smell. Local Boards of Health could be set up, but the General Board was abolished. Beginning of the London main drainage scheme, largely because of the 'stink'.

1861 Death of Prince Albert, from typhoid.

1866 Fourth Cholera epidemic resulted in 6,000 deaths. A Sanitary Act was passed as a result of which local authorities had to take action to provide fresh water, sewage and waste disposal.

1869 The Peabody Trust, founded by George Peabody, begins to build cheap, good quality blocks of flats for working people in London.

1870 Local Government Board set up to supervise local authorities and to take general responsibility for public health.

1872 Second Public Health Act was passed. As a result sanitary authorities were set up and all authorities had to appoint a Medical Officer of Health.

1875 Third Public Health Act was passed. This set up Local Boards of Health and forced the appointment of Health Inspectors and Sanitary Inspectors. Artisans' Dwelling Act allowed local councils to clear slums.

1890 Housing of the Working Classes Act gave local authorities the power to build housing for working people, these became known as council houses.

1902 London's water supply was taken over by the London County Council, previously it had been supplied by eight water companies, only five of which had filtered the water.

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