Extract from the Great Roll of the Pipe for the thirteenth year of the reign of King John, A.D 1210-1211. Catalogue Ref: E 372/57, m. 22
Idem redd[it] comp[otum] de cccc et xxx li. et xiiij s. et ob. de taillagio Judeorum facto apud Bristo’ quas ab eis receipt quod tallagium factum fuit in festo omnium sanctorum anni preteriti. Et de xvij li. et xviij s. et xj d. de Meir f. Samsonis de Stanford de eodem taillagio. Et de xx s. de Meir de Abbendon’ de eodem. Et de viij li. de tallagio Ysaac de Winton’. Et de M et ccc et xxxvj li. et ix s. et vj d. et ob. de fine Ysaac cyrograph’ et uxoris sue et puerorum suorum […] Et de xx li. de Peiteuin de Norwiz. Et de c et xxxix li. et xiij s. de Ysaac de Norwiz scilicet de catallis sui. Et de c m. de catallis Abraham f. Auigaie. Et de xxx li. de catallis Ysaac de Cantuar’ […] Et de xxviij li. et x s. (et vj d.) de domibus Judeorum Lond’ […] Summa MM et c et lix li. et xj s. In thes.
The same renders an account of 430 pounds and 14 shillings and a half pence of the tallage of the Jews made at Bristol […] on the feast of All Saints (1st November) of the past year. And of 17 pounds and 18 shillings and 11 pence from Meir, son of Sampson of Stanford of the same tallage. And of 20 shillings from Meir de Abbendon of the same (tallage). And of 8 pounds of the tallage [from] Isaac of Winchester. And of 1,336 pounds and 9 shillings and 6 and a half pence from Isaac the chirograph clerk (who was responsible for looking after records of Jewish loans in Winchester), his wife and his children […] And of 20 pounds from Peitevin of Norwich. And of 139 pounds and 8 shillings from Isaac of Norwich, namely of his chattels. And of 100 marks of the chattels of Abraham, son of Auigaie. And of 30 pounds of the chattels of Isaac of Canterbury […] And of 28 pounds and 10 shillings (and 6 pence) of the houses of the Jews of London […] The sum of 2,159 pounds and 11 shillings. In the treasury.
« Return to Jews in England 1066
By the end of the twelfth century, it was clear that Christians in England did not always ‘guard’ and ‘protect’ Jewish individuals as the Charter of Liberties outlined. Growing tensions surrounding ‘blood libel’ accusations and the start of the Third Crusade soon opened Jewish communities to persecution and violence from their Christian neighbours. However, it was not only the wider population that came to harm Jews; the king himself also participated in the escalating exploitation and England’s Jewish community, Jews were forced to pay large sums of money as tallages (taxes) to the crown. Read the background information on the tallage of 1210 (if you have not already), then examine sources 3-5.
- Read King John’s letters (Sources 3 & 4) sent to the constable of Bristol on 26 July
- What are the king’s orders in Source 3?
- What does the king suggest about how Isaac should be treated? Does this surprise you? Explain your answer.
- What does Source 4 say should happen to any Jewish individual who has not paid their tallage?
- Read the extract from Rodger of Wendover below.
Wendover described the consequences of one Jewish man who failed to pay his tallage on time. Although some medieval chroniclers (writers) are known to have exaggerated to make their stories more exciting, do you believe that Jews were treated fairly by the king in the early 1200s?
Use Sources 3, 4 and 5 to help explain your answer.
“The King, therefore, ordered his torturers to pull out one of his molar teeth each day until he should have paid the sum of 10,000 marks. For seven days, a tooth was extracted with almost intolerable suffering…” [Roger of Wendover, Flores Historiarum, ed. Coxe, iii, 231]
The Pipe rolls reveal that the first instalment of the tallage was paid to the king on 1st November. Read through Source 5 below and consider the following questions:
a. What was the sum of the tallage collected so far?
b. Who contributed the greatest amount of money in this extract? What does that suggest about them?
c. How do you think this tallage (tax) impacted England’s Jewish community? Explain your answer.