This is the form of peace commonly agreed upon and approved by the lord king and the Lord Edward his son and all the great men and the community of the whole realm of England:
This ordinance was made in parliament, which met at London on 24 June, for preserving the peace of the realm. It shall remain in peace until the king and the barons reach a permanent agreement. If this agreement is not reached then this ordinance will last for the life of the king.
For the good of the realm of England, three wise and faithful men of the realm shall be chosen and nominated. These men shall have authority and power from the lord king to choose and to nominate nine councillors. With the advice of these nine councillors, the lord king shall settle all affairs of the realm.
This agreement is a temporary measure until de Montfort and the king can reach a lasting agreement. De Montfort defeated Henry at the Battle of Lewes in May and has held Henry and his son Edward prisoner since the battle. This document essentially gave all of the king’s power to de Montfort and a council of barons. It was approved by the ‘community’ of England – four knights of each shire as well as leading rebel barons. But is this evidence of de Montfort’s commitment to good government or of him scheming to take over the throne?
Agreement between Henry III and de Montfort, June 1264
The National Archives
Test your understanding
How many councillors would advise the king?
Incorrect, I’m afraid... Why don’t you try studying the document and listening to the transcript again?
Good... good. Yes the answer is nine councillors.
Why have the barons rebelled against Henry III?
- Is it because Simon de Montfort is an ambitious traitor who wants power for himself? Is he not really interested in the liberties granted by Magna Carta and is acting like a revolutionary dictator by seizing power?
- Or is it Henry who cannot be trusted? Has he ruled the kingdom badly and he is also trying to get out of commitments he has made to rule according to Magna Carta and the Provisions of Oxford?
- It is the view of this chronicle that the barons have rebelled against King Henry III because…