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Catalogue of the papers and correspondence of Joseph Needham CH FRS (1900-1995), biochemist and historian of science, relating to Chemical and Biological Warfare


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Reference NCUACS 95.10.5
Covering dates 1952-1989
Held by Imperial War Museum Department of Documents
Extent ca 150 items. 5 boxes.
Conditions of access NOT ALL THE MATERIAL IN THIS COLLECTION MAY YET BE AVAILABLE FOR CONSULTATION. ENQUIRIES SHOULD BE ADDRESSED IN THE FIRST INSTANCE TO:
THE DEPARTMENT OF DOCUMENTS
IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM
LONDON
Source of acquisition The material was deposited in the Department of Documents, Imperial War Museum by Joseph Needham in 1992, as a result of arrangements made following an oral history interview in 1987. It was received for cataloguing from the Department of Documents in December 1993.
Creators Needham, Joseph, 1900-1995, scientist and biochemist
Related information Books on CBW donated by Needham to the Imperial War Museum are held by the Museum's Department of Printed Books.
The principal collection of the papers and correspondence of Joseph Needham is deposited in Cambridge University Library. It is catalogued as NCUACS no. 54/3/95.
Where appropriate references have been given in the present catalogue to folder numbers of complementary material in the papers deposited in Cambridge.
Note Compiled by: Timothy E. Powell and Peter Harper
The work of the National Cataloguing Unit for the Archives of Contemporary Scientists has been made possible by the support of the following societies and organisations:
The Biochemical Society
The British Library
British Petroleum plc
The Geological Society
The Institute of Physics
The Royal Society
The Royal Society of Chemistry
The Society of Chemical Industry
The Wellcome Trust

Contents:
The papers relate to Needham's service as a member of the World Peace Council sponsored 1952 International Scientific Commission investigating alleged United States use of bacteriological warfare in North Korea and north east China during the Korean War, and subsequent material relating to the findings of the Commission and to chemical and biological warfare (CBW) in general.
In early 1952 the governments of North Korea and the People's Republic of China claimed that the US was dropping infected insects and other material into their territory from the air in an effort to spread disease. Unwilling to accept investigation of these charges by the World Health Organisation or International Red Cross, the North Korean and Chinese authorities invited a commission from the International Association of Democratic Lawyers. This commission reported in March and April that they believed the charges to be true and accused the US of war crimes.
During his period in China as head of the Sino-British Science Co-operation Office, 1942-1946, Needham had been asked to investigate reports that the Japanese were using bacteriological weapons against Chinese civilian targets. He was persuaded by evidence from the Chinese Surgeon-General's office that the Japanese were engaged in bacteriological warfare and submitted a report to this effect. When the allegations of US use of bacteriological agents arose Needham believed that the US military could have been building on the Japanese experience with bacteriological warfare to which they would have had access during the occupation of Japan.
Needham was involved in organising a number of meetings to discuss the allegations and the findings of the International Association of Democratic Lawyers' commission and in April 1952 prepared a set of 'Notes on alleged Bacterial Warfare in Korea' indicating that he found the claims of the North Korean and Chinese authorities plausible. However, the commission's findings were widely regarded as suspect, in part because of the lack of scientific knowledge on the part of its members. The Chinese and North Korean authorities therefore established an International Scientific Commission to add credibility to the investigation of its allegations. Needham was a member of this, receiving a formal invitation to P.R. China from the Academia Sinica.
The Scientific Commission, comprising seven scientists from Europe, USSR and Brazil was led by the Swedish scientist Andrea Andreen. It arrived in P.R. China in late June and continued its work through to September. On his return to Britain Needham held a press conference to report the Commission's findings and shortly thereafter the Commission's report was published. It concluded that the US was waging bacteriological warfare in North Korea and China, albeit not a great scale. The Commission's findings aroused great controversy. Needham spoke at many meetings, some organised by the Britain-China Friendship Association, to defend the Commission's work, and also was involved in a number of exchanges in the press. The controversy was reawakened when the US airmen who had testified to the use of bacteriological weapons withdrew their evidence on their release by North Korea.
In 1956 the editors of China Monthly Review, J.W. Powell, his wife S.C. Powell and J. Schuman were charged in the US with sedition. Amongst the seditious material said to have been published were the findings of the Commission. Needham and other members of the Commission wrote in support of the defendants against whom all charges were finally dropped in 1961.
Needham thereafter maintained an interest in the subject of CBW and from the late-1970s, after the passing of the Freedom of Information Act in the USA, evidence was released appearing to support the findings of the 1952 Commission.
The bulk of the papers relate to the 1952 allegations. There are correspondence and papers relating to the reception of the reports of the commission from the International Federation of Democratic Lawyers', the formation of the International Scientific Commission, and all stages of its work, including copies of evidence placed before the Commission and Needham's notes made during the Commission's enquiries. There is also extensive material relating to the reception of the Commission's Report in the UK and worldwide, including press-cuttings and correspondence with interested parties. Needham spoke at many meetings explaining the work of the Commission and defending its findings and these are documented here. There is also material covering the release of the US airmen and the doubt that their retractions of evidence given to the Scientific Commission seemed to throw on its findings.
The collection also includes correspondence and papers relating to the trial of J.W. Powell and his co-defendants and to Needham's efforts to enlist support for their case in the UK, press-cuttings and other background material on CBW assembled during the 1960s, relating in particular to the conflict in Vietnam, and correspondence from the late 1970s on arising from the renewed historical interest in the possible use of bacteriological weapons by the Japanese in the Second World War and by the US in the Korean War.
Item 113 is an audio recording of Needham's account of his work on the Commission made for the Imperial War Museum in 1987.
LIST OF PAPERS
The material is arranged as follows:
1-113 International Scientific Commission
1-12 Establishment of Commission
13-54 Commission investigations
55-113 Reception of the Commission report
114-122 Powell-Schuman case
123-153 Later CBW material 1962-1989
123-135 1960s
136-139 1970s
140-153 1980s



International Scientific Commission  NCUACS 95.10.5/1-113  [n.d.]

Establishment of Commission  NCUACS 95.10.5/1-12  [n.d.]

'Pre-Commission'.  NCUACS 95.10.5/1-8  [n.d.]

Contents:
Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into eight for ease of reference: papers re response to allegations of US use of bacteriological warfare and the findings of the commission of the International Association of Democratic Lawyers.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/1

Contents:
Joint Meeting of Britain-China Friendship Association (BCFA) and London Peace Council, London, 25 April 1952.
Annotated agenda; manuscript notes; BCFA broadsheet 'America is using Germ Warfare'; letter arising.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/2

Contents:
Joint Meeting of national committees of Science for Peace and Medical Association for the Prevention of War, London, 28 April 1952. The meeting was addressed by J.D. Bernal.
Includes letter re arrangements and 5pp typescript 'Bacteriological Warfare in Korea and China' by Bernal.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/3  9 May 1952 - 9 June 1952

Contents:
Invitation to British Peace Committee private discussion meeting on bacteriological warface, London
Public Meeting organised by Cambridge Peace Front and BCFA on 'Is America using Germ Warfare?', Cambridge
Draft resolution, with covering letter; poster; hand-bill.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/4  27 April 1952

Contents:
Manuscript and typescript drafts of Needham's 'Notes on alleged Bacterial Warfare in Korea'; duplicated typescript copy

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/5

Contents:
Press-cuttings on the alleged use of bacteriological warfare.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/6

Contents:
Press-releases and publicity material of New China News Agency.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/7, 8

2 folders

Contents:
Other printed and typescript background material.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/9  March-April 1952

Contents:
Copy of International Association of Democratic Lawyers' commission Reports on Investigations in Korea and China

'A Formation of Commission'.  NCUACS 95.10.5/10-12  [n.d.]

Contents:
Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into three for ease of reference.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/10  April-May 1952

Contents:
Correspondence re need for scientific investigation of Chinese claims and re possible membership of a scientific commission

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/11  June 1952

Contents:
Correspondence re Needham's visit to P.R. China

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/12

Contents:
Miscellaneous material. Includes typescript of letter to Dorothy Needham (wife) with account of his likely movements in China, and material re preparation of joint statement by members of the Commission explaining the limits of their professional competence.

Commission investigations  NCUACS 95.10.5/13-54  [n.d.]

'A1 Queries and Comments Background material'  NCUACS 95.10.5/13-16  [n.d.]

Contents:
Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into four for ease of reference.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/13

Contents:
'Documents (first series) given for reproduction in Fr, [Chinese] and Russ', 23 June 1952.
Includes reports of meetings of joint subcommittee of Science for Peace and Medical Association for the Prevention of Warfare to consider the allegations, 5 May and 10 May; and 'critical comments' by J.H. Humphrey and W.H. Thorpe.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/14

Contents:
'Comment and summary (by a scientist March 16, 1952)', 2pp typescript; 'An investigation to determine whether the flies naturally occurring in Shenyang city carry intestinal pathogenic bacteria and B. Anthracis', 5pp duplicated typescript, July and August 1952; 'The vector-borne infections', 8pp typescript abstract of 1947 article by T. Rosebury et al.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/15

Contents:
Miscellaneous typescript and duplicated typescript notes and papers.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/16

Contents:
Manuscript notes; press-cuttings; etc.

'A2 Documents of Commission.'  NCUACS 95.10.5/17-19  [n.d.]

Contents:
Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into three for ease of reference.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/17, 18

Contents:
Duplicated typescript reports of meetings 1-17 of the Commission, 23 June - 19 July 1952. Needham attended from the second meeting.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/19

Contents:
Typescript biographical notes on S.B. Pessôa, Commission member; manuscript notes for Needham's 'Dinner spch at Mukden 1st night'.

'B Prague documents and their analysis'.  NCUACS 95.10.5/20-23  [n.d.]

Contents:
Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into four for ease of reference: typescript and manuscript notes on evidence for bacteriological warfare, and duplicated typescript World Peace Council 'Documentation on Bacteriological Warfare' bulletins and reports on alleged incidents from Chinese government agencies, some annotated by Needham.
Retained in original order.
The 'Prague documents' were statements, reports, scientific data and other evidence that had been assembled by earlier investigations into allegations of the use of bacteriological weapons. They were so-called because they were disseminated through Prague. The documents bore the code SIA.
The Scientific Commission, to identify the evidence it gathered, used the code ISC.

'B Four Zero series'.  NCUACS 95.10.5/24-27  [n.d.]

Contents:
Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into four for ease of reference: duplicated typescript reports on cases of alleged use of bacteriological warfare, some annotated by Needham, with accompanying photographs of evidence.
The 'Four Zero series' was a sequence of cases from alleged incidents in north east China, numbered 00001 - 00010.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/28

Contents:
'B1 Additional Releases mainly non-scientific'. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed: World Peace Council 'Documentation on Bacteriological Warfare' bulletins; press-cuttings.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/29, 30

Contents:
'B2 Plague Kan-Nan'. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into two for ease of reference: typescript report (2 copies) of incident of plague at Kan-Nan, extensively annotated by Needham; manuscript and typescript notes; etc.
The Commission visited Kan-Nan on 14 July 1952.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/31,32

Contents:
'B3 Containers cf K'uan-Tien Burchett Ch'ang-Pai Pilots'. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into two for ease of reference: typescript and manuscript notes, photographs etc on types of canisters and bombs described in the incidents; notes on case of American POW allegedly infected by germ-carrying insect.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/33

Contents:
'B4 Anthrax'. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed: 14pp typescript 'Commentary on the incidents in Liaotung province connected with the dissemination of anthrax and cases arising therefrom'; manuscript and typescript notes.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/34

Contents:
'B5 Encephalitis'. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed: manuscript and typescript notes, including incomplete typescript 'Commentary on the cases of a new form of encephalitis occurring at Shenyang (Mukden) after American air intrusions'.

'B6 Phytopathol.'  NCUACS 95.10.5/35, 36  [n.d.]

Contents:
Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into two for ease of reference.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/35

Contents:
Duplicated typescript reports on cases of alleged dispersal of fungus-laden plant material by US air force, with accompanying photographs of evidence.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/36

Contents:
Manuscript and typescript notes.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/37

Contents:
'C1 Korea general'. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed: typescript 'Questions addressed to the (North) Korean Minister of Health', 30 July 1952, with replies; manuscript draft of 'Questions' in French; manuscript notes.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/38

Contents:
'C2 Korea Cholera etc'. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed: manuscript and typescript notes re alleged use of cholera at Dai-Dong.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/39

Contents:
'C3 Korean material Plague and Jap plague etc'. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed: manuscript and typescript notes re alleged use of plague at Kang-Sou and Hoi-Yang.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/40

Contents:
'C4 Korea agents'. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed: typescript and manuscript notes re South Korean agents allegedly sent into North Korea to ascertain effects of bacteriological warfare.

'C5 Korea pilots'.  NCUACS 95.10.5/41-45  [n.d.]

Contents:
Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into five for ease of reference.
The Chinese and North Korean allegations were supported by the confessions of captured US airmen. These were subsequently retracted, see 106-112 below.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/41

Contents:
Letter from S.W. Green, Cambridge Peace Front, re importance of Westerners being allowed to interview captured airmen, 25 July 1952; 'Notes on interviews with four captured American airmen', 15pp typescript; manuscript notes.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/42  May - June 1952

Contents:
World Peace Council 'Documentation on Bacteriological Warfare' bulletins on confessions of US pilots.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/43, 44  September 1952

2 folders.

Contents:
Press-release supplements of the New China News Agency reporting the statements and 'interrogation' of the airmen by the Scientific Commission.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/45

Contents:
Photographs of written testimony by US airmen; printed material.

'D Exhibitions'.  NCUACS 95.10.5/46, 47  [n.d.]

Contents:
Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into two for ease of reference.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/46

Contents:
Manuscript notes on and bibliography from 'BW exhibn' at Shenyang.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/47  1952

Contents:
Brochure for 'Exhibition on Bacteriological War Crimes committed by the Government of the United States of America', Peking.

'E Report'.  NCUACS 95.10.5/48-50  [n.d.]

Contents:
Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into three for ease of reference: typescript drafts of sections of the Scientific Commission's report, with Needham's manuscript annotations and corrections.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/51

Contents:
'Selected papers from ISC files'. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed: miscellaneous manuscript and typescript notes; press-cuttings etc.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/52

Contents:
Chinese material re hygiene measures: three illustrated booklets 'The Health of the Village', 'The Happiness of the Farmer' and 'Crush the American Bacterial Warfare'; 10pp typescript, 'Some aspects of the Patriotic Health and Sanitation Campaign'.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/53  1952

Contents:
Report of the International Scientific Commission for the Investigation of the Facts concerning Bacterial Warfare in Korea and China (with appendices), Peking.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/54

Contents:
French version of the Report.

Reception of the Commission's Report  NCUACS 95.10.5/55-113  [n.d.]

'Press conference'.  NCUACS 95.10.5/55-58  [n.d.]

Contents:
Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into five for ease of reference.
On his return from the Commission, prior to publication of the report, Needham held a press conference in London on 26 September 1952.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/55

Contents:
6pp duplicated typescript of Needham's statement, with manuscript corrections; insertions for the statement and transcript of Needham's replies to questions; duplicated typescript copy of letter to Press Association listing other scientists who had been invited to China to investigate the claims.
See 65 below.

Needham's duplicated typescript copies of material relating to the reception of the Commission's report, October 1952 - March 1953.  NCUACS 95.10.5/56, 57  [n.d.]

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/56

Contents:
Correspondence appearing in The Times, re the Commission's report, 3-29 October 1952. See 86, 87 below.
Correspondence arising with Chairman of the Eastern Region of the United Nations Association, and resolution of executive committee, objecting to Needham writing to the press in his capacity as a Vice President of the Eastern Regional Council of the Association, November 1952. See 86 below.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/57

Contents:
Parliamentary debates and questions; correspondence arising with J.B. White MP, December 1952 - March 1953. See 67 below.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/58

Contents:
Summary booklet of Report of the International Scientific Commission for the Investigation of the Facts concerning Bacterial Warfare in Korea and China; manuscript notes etc.

'Distribution'.  NCUACS 95.10.5/59-64  [n.d.]

Contents:
Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into six for ease of reference: correspondence re distribution of the report, including requests for copies, and lists of those to whom the report was to be sent.

Correspondence  NCUACS 95.10.5/59-62  July 1952 - February 1953

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/59  1952 July, September

Contents:
Correspondence

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/60  1952 October

Contents:
Correspondence

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/61  1952 November

Contents:
Correspondence

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/62  1952 December, 1953 January - February

Contents:
Correspondence

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/63

Contents:
Manuscript lists and notes of those requesting the report.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/64

Contents:
Typescript lists of those to receive the report.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/65

Contents:
'British scientists approached'. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed: list of and correspondence with other scientists approached by the Chinese authorities to join the Commission.
Needham was accused of being asked by the Chinese authorities to join the Commission less for his scientific expertise than for his Communist sympathies. Needham was able to show that other British scientists without such political affiliations had been approached by the Chinese but had felt unable to join the Commission. See 55 above.

Contents of Needham's untitled folder divided into nine for ease of reference: papers arising from Commission.  NCUACS 95.10.5/66-74  [n.d.]

Correspondence  NCUACS 95.10.5/66-70  September 1952 - March 1954

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/66  1952 September - December

Contents:
Chiefly re parliamentary exchange between S.O. Davies MP and A. Nutting MP, Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Includes Needham's letter to Davies, refuting statement made by Nutting in reply to question by Davies.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/67  1952 December - 1953 March

Contents:
Correspondence with J.B. White MP, and with Hewlett Johnson, Dean of Canterbury, re White's letters; manuscript list of recipients.
Needham produced duplicated typescript copies of the correspondence for circulation. See 57 above.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/68  1953 January, February

Contents:
Includes 'Memorandum by a British scientist... The alleged B.W. incident at Changteh', 25 March 1942, sent to Needham by Foreign Office at his request, and correspondence re invitations to speak on biological warfare.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/69  1953 March - June

Contents:
Chiefly re invitations to speak on biological warfare.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/70  1953 July - 1954 March

Contents:
Correspondence

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/71

Contents:
Needham's manuscript notes on visit to Emergency Medical Service Training School, Kweiyang, recording his observations on Japanese use of bacteriological warfare.
From 1942 to 1945 Needham was head of the Sino-British Science Co-operation Office, based in Chungking. He visited many Chinese research establishments and kept the rough notes he made during these visits in a numbered sequence; the notes found here being numbered '153'. The main sequence is to be found at NCUACS 54/3/95, C.57-C.69.
Needham's manuscript notes on Ishii Shiro, Japanese World War Two expert on bacteriological warfare, said to be involved in alleged US use of bacteriological warfare in Korea.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/72

Contents:
Press-cuttings on bacteriological warfare allegations and accusations of Chinese torture of UN POWs.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/73

Contents:
Depositions of Nineteen Captured U.S. Airmen on their Participation in Germ Warfare in Korea, Peking, 1953.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/74

Contents:
Miscellaneous printed and duplicated typescript material.

'BW after return finished'.  NCUACS 95.10.5/75-84  September 1952 - March 1953

Contents:
Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into ten for ease of reference: chiefly invitations and correspondence re arrangements for lectures on bacteriological warfare in Korea and China

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/75  September - October 1952

Contents:
Correspondence
Includes letters and telegrams of appreciation for Needham's work on the Scientific Commission.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/76  November 1952 - February 1953

Contents:
Correspondence

Invitations to lecture and correspondence re arrangements  NCUACS 95.10.5/77-84  [n.d.]

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/77

Contents:
Central Union of Chinese Students, London, 4 October.
Staff of New Statesman and Nation, London, 6 October.
Association of Scientific Workers, National Institute for Medical Research, London, 13 October.
London School of Economics Socialist Society, 15 October.
Wembley Peace Council, Wembley, Middlesex, 1 November (declined).

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/78

Contents:
Cambridge University ?Socialist Club, 6 or 7 November (declined).
Fabian Society Weekend School, Dorking, Surrey, 7-9 November (declined).
Birkbeck College London branch Science for Peace, 7 November.
University College London biologists, 7 November.
Fleet Street Forum, London, 7 November.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/79

Contents:
Association of Scientific Workers Executive Committee, London, 8 November.
Students' Union, Reading University, 11 November (declined).
Socialist Medical Association, London, 18 November.
Britain-China Friendship Association, Cambridge Peace Front etc, Cambridge, 25 November.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/80

Contents:
Bristol University Socialist Society, 28 November (declined).
Cambridge Heretics, 30 November.
Leeds University Socialist Society, November (declined).
Congress of Peoples for Peace, Vienna, 12 December (declined).

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/81

Contents:
Lecture tour of Glasgow, 15 December, Edinburgh, 16 December, Manchester, 17 December and Birmingham, 18 December.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/82

Contents:
Association of Scientific Workers London Area, 19 January.
Socialist Medical Association South West Essex branch, Ilford, 9 February.
South Place Ethical Society, London, 17 February.
Queen Mary College London Science for Peace Society, 18 February.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/83

Contents:
Association of Scientific Workers North West branch, and Manchester University Socialist Society (declined), 19 February.
Ipswich Peace Council, 21 February.
Bristol University Science Faculty Society, February (declined).
Imperial College London branch Science for Peace, 3 March.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/84

Contents:
Invitations to visit France to speak on bacteriological warfare.

'Current'  NCUACS 95.10.5/85-93  [n.d.]

Contents:
Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into nine for ease of reference: correspondence and papers re reception of the report.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/85

Contents:
Cuttings from Daily Worker, 22 September 1952, featuring Needham's return to the UK from China, and the work of the Commission; correspondence arising; 10pp duplicated typescript 'A note upon the Chinese allegations that the United States are employing Germ Warfare in Korea and N.E. China' by G. Bing MP, 26 September 1952; Britain-China Friendship Association Newsletter, September.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/86

Contents:
Correspondence with United Nations Association and English-Speaking Union re findings of Commission and letters to The Times, October - November 1952. See 56 above.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/87

Contents:
Correspondence, October 1952, chiefly re response of Needham and others to letter in The Times from Sir Henry Dale and Sir Robert Robinson, Past Presidents of the Royal Society, on the Commission's investigations. Includes drafts of letters of reply to The Times.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/88

Contents:
Correspondence and papers, November 1952 - February 1953. Includes material re response of Science for Peace to Commission's findings, and public meeting in Birmingham, 18 December. See 81 above.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/89

Contents:
Needham's manuscript notes on possible replies to criticisms of the Report, etc.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/90

Contents:
Press-releases of New China News Agency.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/91

Contents:
Press-cuttings and miscellaneous material.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/92, 93

Contents:
Background information on spread and control of infectious disease. 2 folders.

'Press cuttings since return'.  NCUACS 95.10.5/94-101  [n.d.]

Contents:
Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into eight for ease of reference: press-cuttings and press-releases.

Contents of Needham's untitled folder divided into four for ease of reference.  NCUACS 95.10.5/102-105  [n.d.]

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/102

Contents:
Défense de La Paix 17 (October 1952), with interview with Needham re the findings of the Commission; pamphlet The Communists' New Weapon - Germ Warfare by J. Clews, London, 1952.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/103

Contents:
Correspondence, August 1953 - August 1954, re the case of R. Brun, a Swiss scientist criticised by the Swiss press for support of the findings of the Commission; correspondence, 1956, chiefly re charges in USA against J.W. and S.C. Powell and J. Schuman, editors of China Monthly Review. See 114-121 below.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/104, 105

2 folders.

Contents:
Duplicated typescript 'Documents lent to Science for Peace', 1953.

'Repatriation Flare-up'  NCUACS 95.10.5/106-112  Nov/Dec 1953

Contents:
Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into seven for ease of reference.
In autumn 1953 the North Koreans, in accordance with the terms of armistice with the UN forces, released POWs. These included the captured US airmen who had given testimonies to their North Korean captors and to the Commission in support of the allegations of bacteriological warfare. On their release they withdrew their testimony, claiming the Communists had placed them under mental and physical duress. This threw doubt on the Commission's Report but Needham insisted that the Commission had not relied on the testimony of the POWs in their case. See 41-45 above.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/106  April - October 1953

Contents:
Correspondence

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/107  November 1953

Contents:
Correspondence. Includes drafts of letters to the press by Needham and others, defending the work of the Commission.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/108  December 1953 - March 1954

Contents:
Correspondence. Chiefly letters to the New Statesman and Nation, December 1953.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/109

Contents:
Manuscript notes on speech of Selwyn Lloyd MP, Foreign Secretary, to United Nations, 28 October 1953, attacking the Commission's report; miscellaneous typescript material.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/110, 111

2 folders.

Contents:
Press-releases of New China News Agency.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/112

Contents:
Press-cuttings

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/113

Contents:
Audio-tape cassette of Needham's recollections of the work of the International Commission.

Powell-Schuman case  NCUACS 95.10.5/114-122  [n.d.]

Contents:
'Powell case'. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed divided into eight for ease of reference.
J.W. Powell, his wife Sylvia C. Powell and J. Schuman were editors of China Monthly Review. In 1956 J.W. Powell was charged with sedition and his wife and J. Schuman of conspiracy. Amongst the seditious material said to have been published in China Monthly Review were reports alleging use of bacteriological warfare by the US. Needham was asked to support the defence case by testifying at the trial. He was unable to do so but sent a letter in support and was active in enlisting support for the defendants in the UK. In 1959 the judge declared a mistrial but the prosecution then filed charges of treason. In 1961 all charges were dropped. See also 103 above.
The material is chiefly correspondence and papers re the progress of the trial, including circular letters of the Committee of Friends of the China Monthly Review for the Defence of its Editors.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/114  1956

Contents:
1956 (1). Copy of Indictment.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/115  1956

Contents:
1956 (2). Correspondence re enlisting support for the defendants.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/116  1957 January - May

Contents:
Includes Needham's manuscript notes of conversation with A.L. Wirin, a lawyer for the defendants, re progress of the trial, 2 May.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/117

Contents:
Copies of articles by Tibor Meray from newspaper Franc-Tireur, May 1957, re allegations of bacteriological warfare

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/118  1957 June - December

Contents:
Includes material re R. Brun. See 103 above.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/119  1958, 1959

Contents:
Includes material re mistrial and new charges of treason.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/120  1960, 1961, nd

Contents:
Includes statements by J.W. Powell.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/121

Contents:
Press-cuttings and other background information.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/122  1957

Contents:
Correspondence re biological warfare research at Dugdale, Utah

Later CBW material  NCUACS 95.10.5/123-153  1962-1989

1960s  NCUACS 95.10.5/123-135  [n.d.]

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/123  1962, 1963

Contents:
Correspondence. Includes requests from Hewlett Johnson, Dean of Canterbury for information in preparation for TV programme, and from P.D. Goodstein for discussion on chemical and biological weapons, with Needham's manuscript notes arising.

Correspondence with and re S. Buckingham  NCUACS 95.10.5/124-127  1965-1969

Contents:
Sue Buckingham was a member of the US organisation Physicians for Social Responsibility gathering material on CBW.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/124  1965-68, 1969

Contents:
Correspondence, 1965-1968, and obituary 1969.

Photocopies of articles on CBW sent to Needham by Buckingham.  NCUACS 95.10.5/125-127  [n.d.]

3 folders

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/128  1966-1967

Contents:
Correspondence. Includes correspondence re arrangements for talk on CBW to Cambridge University CND, 9 May 1967.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/129  1967

Contents:
Correspondence with British Broadcasting Corporation re contribution to 'Horizon' programme on CBW.
Includes 16pp typescript 'Chemical and bacteriological warfare' prepared by Needham for the programme but not used.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/130  1968-1970

Contents:
Correspondence. Includes invitations to give talks on CBW and material re J. D. Bernal Peace Library Conference on Chemical and Biological Warfare, 22-23 February 1968.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/131

Contents:
Press-cuttings etc re UK CBW research establishment at Portion Down.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/132

Contents:
Manuscript notes and printed material re possible use of CBW in Vietnam.

Miscellaneous printed background material  NCUACS 95.10.5/133-135  [n.d.]

3 folders

1970s  NCUACS 95.10.5/136-139  [n.d.]

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/136

Contents:
Material re death of Andrea Andreen, 1972. Andreen was chair of the 1952 Scientific Commission.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/137  1976-1977

Contents:
Correspondence

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/138  1977-1978

Contents:
Correspondence from J. van Ginneken re 1952 Commission. Includes 29pp typescript draft 'Bacterial Warfare: was it employed or wasn't it?' by van Ginneken.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/139  1978-1979

Contents:
Correspondence. Includes 39pp typescript of 'Germ Warfare and "Plausible Denial" In the Korean War 1952-53' by S.L. Endicott with invitation to Needham to write a comment to be published with the article in Modern China.

1980s  NCUACS 95.10.5/140-153  [n.d.]

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/140  1980

Contents:
Correspondence, chiefly with J.W. Powell re re-opening of investigations into US and Japanese use of bacteriological warfare.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/141  1981

Contents:
Correspondence and papers, chiefly re 'Appeal against an escalating chemical arms race in Europe'.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/142  1981

Contents:
Papers by E. Broda, sent to Needham

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/143

Contents:
'Jon Halliday material Spring 1984'. Contents of Needham's folder so inscribed: correspondence and photocopies of background material.
Halliday was a researcher studying the work of the 1952 Commission.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/144  August - September 1984

Contents:
Correspondence re possible TV programme on the Korean war.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/145  November - December 1984

Contents:
Correspondence and papers re BBC TV 'Horizon' programme 'Biology at War: a plague in the Wind', broadcast 29 October. Includes post production script.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/146  1985-1986

Contents:
Correspondence and papers. Chiefly re 1952 Commission.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/147  1987

Contents:
Correspondence. Includes correspondence with Imperial War Museum re Needham's CBW papers.

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/148  1988

Contents:
Correspondence

[no title]  NCUACS 95.10.5/149  1989

Contents:
Correspondence, re N.H.K. [Japan Broadcasting Corporation] TV programme on bacteriological warfare, with particular relation to World War Two and the Korean War.
Needham provided information and was interviewed for the programme.

[no title or date]  NCUACS 95.10.5/150

Contents:
Press-cuttings.

Miscellaneous background material  NCUACS 95.10.5/151-153  [n.d.]

3 folders

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