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Glossary - T

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T2 tankers

US oil tankers mass produced during the Second World War. After Pearl Harbour they were built to supply the accelerated production of warships. The largest 'navy order' of the time, over 500 were built between 1941 and 1945.

Tactical weapons

Tactical weapons are designed for use in battle, as part of an attack with conventional forces. Tactical nuclear weapons typically have lower yields and shorter ranges than strategic systems and include short range missiles, free fall bombs, shells and anti-submarine depth charges.

Thakins

Burmese nationalist group founded in 1930. It combined tradition with modernity, bringing together traditionalist Buddhist nationalist elements and fresh political ideals. Comprised mostly of disaffected students, they co-operated with the Japanese occupation during the Second World War, and are credited with the formation of the Burmese National Army in 1944.

Thelma Cazalet-Kerr

British feminist and Conservative politician. Her parents met many influential figures of the day, including Sylvia Pankhurst. Entered local politics in 1924 as a London County Councillor and became an Alderman in 1931. Between 1931-1945 she was Conservative MP for Islington East.

Thomas Shaw

Left wing Trade Unionist and Labour politician who was MP for Preston between 1918-1931. He was Minister of Labour in 1924 and Secretary of State for War between 1929-1931.

Thor IRBMs

Ballistic missile carrying a nuclear warhead. First deployed in Britain between 1959-1963, it had a range of 1500 miles, allowing Moscow to be reached from the UK. Replaced by ICBM in 1963. Also used as a space launch vehicle

Tientsin

Large city in northern coastal China

Tigris

1,200 mile long river flowing from Turkey through Iraq to the sea

Tiran Straits

The strategically-important narrow sea passage between the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas, separating the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea

Tobruk

Seaport town in north-eastern Libya, close to the border with Egypt

Tony Benn

Left-wing Labour politician. Served as a pilot in the Royal Air Force during the Second World War.  Resigned as an MP when his father Baron Stangate died in 1960. Campaigned for the Peerage Act (1963), allowing peers to renounce their title. Cabinet Minister under Wilson and Callaghan in Industry, Energy and Technology, he was largely responsible for Concorde. During the 1970s and 1980s he was the prominent figure on the left of the Labour Party. Retired from Parliament in 2000. Despite his left-wing politics he is admired by right-wing British media and politicians and is a staunch anti-war campaigner

Trades Union Congress (TUC)

Co-ordinates unions political influence, especially over the Labour Party. Played a dominant role in the 'strike truce' of the First World War and in the General Strike of 1926. Holds an annual meeting to which representatives of all trades unions are invited. Probably most influential in the 1970s, but less so today

Tramp shipping

This involves ships without a fixed schedule or published ports of call picking up cargoes as they become available. They usually carry bulk raw or low-value materials like grain, ore, or coal, for which inexpensive transportation is required

Transjordan

Former Ottoman territory incorporated into the British Mandate of Palestine in 1921

Transport and General Workers Union (TGWU)

Formed in 1922, it became one of the largest general trade unions in the world, bringing together unskilled workers in a wide range of trades and occupations. Ernest Bevin was its first General Secretary between 1922-1945. It had particularly close relations with the Labour Party and influenced Labour Party policy

Trans-Siberian railway

A network of railways connecting Moscow and European Russia with the Far Eastern Provinces, Mongolia, China and the Sea of Japan. It is the most important transportation link within Russia, with about 30% of Russia's exports using the line

Treaty of Lausanne

1923 Treaty between Turkey and the Allies which replaced the Treaty of Sevres 1920. Whilst parts of Sevres were confirmed, the city of Smyrna and areas of western and European Turkey were restored from Greek to Turkish rule. This followed successful Turkish military operations against Greek forces to recapture Smyrna

Treaty of Locarno

A 1925 international agreement. Germany accepted the territorial changes made by the Versailles Treaty in the West, but not in the East. France and Germany agreed to settle any future disputes through the League of Nations, paving the way for German entry into the League in 1926

Treaty of Neuilly

1919 Treaty between Bulgaria and the Allies. Bulgaria lost lands to Greece, Romania and Yugoslavia, and its access to the Mediterranean. It had to limit its armed forces to 20,000 and pay £100 million in reparations. Bulgaria was treated less harshly than its allies because it played a smaller part in the war

Treaty of Rapallo

1925 Treaty between Weimar Germany and the Soviet Union, in which both agreed not to pursue financial or territorial claims arising from the First World War. In order to co-operate economically, and through secret clauses, arranged the training of German troops in the Soviet Union in defiance of the 1919 Versailles Treaty

Treaty of Sevres

Agreed in 1920 between the Allies and Turkey. It involved considerable loss of land to Greece as mandates administered by Britain or France. Control of the straits into the Black Sea was also lost. Its terms were challenged by Mustafa Kemal and war with Greece followed. The Treaty failed

Treaty of St Germain

1919 Treaty separated Austria from Hungary, confirming Austria was no longer a leading power. Austria lost land to Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Poland and Italy, which led to severe economic problems. Its army was restricted to 30,000 and it was forbidden ever to unite with Germany

Treaty of Trianon

Imposed on Hungary in 1920. It replaced the kingdom of Hungary, part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, with a republic. It took two thirds of its land away to create the new states of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, and greatly enlarge Romania. Hungary was consequently too weak to pay reparations

Treaty of Versailles

Treaty with Germany after the First World War. Germany was blamed for the war, made to pay reparations and was stripped of army, navy and air force. The Germans had anticipated a treaty more in line with Wilson's 14 Points, and regarded the Treaty as a 'diktat' (A harsh, unilaterally imposed settlement with a defeated party). Even some British officials thought the Treaty too harsh

Triple Alliance

Alliance between three powerful trades unions - the Miners, the Railwaymen, and the Transport Workers - to support each other in the event of a strike. Invoked in June 1925 when the mine-owners cut miners' wages, a strike was temporarily avoided by a Government subsidy on miners' wages

Tripoli

Capital city and major port of Libya. The area was part of the Ottoman Empire until captured by Italy in 1911

Tripoltania

Short-lived Italian independent colony set up in 1927, following Italy's seizure of Libya from the Ottomans between 1911-1912. In 1934 it became part of Italian Libya, by joining together Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. Italy faced continuous revolts by the Senussi tribesmen

trusteeship

Concept developed by Colonial powers between the wars whereby colonies had to be ruled in a way that looked after the interests of the native peoples as well as whites. Economic development had to benefit native peoples as well as colonial powers. Further developed by the UN after the Second World War with its Trusteeship Council