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Glossary - K

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Kasserine Pass

A two-mile wide gap in the Atlas Mountains

Keith Joseph, Sir

Influential Conservative politician. Held office under Heath as Secretary of State for Social Services between 1970-1974, under Thatcher as Secretary of State for Industry between 1979-1981 and for Education and Social Science between 1981-1986. A leading Conservative thinker and advocate of monetarism, he helped found the Centre for Policy Studies


Supporter of Mustafa Kemal, founder of the modern Turkish republic

Kenneth Kaunda

Zambian statesman and President between 1964-1991. A teacher, he joined the African National Congress before forming the Zambian ANC in 1958. Jailed by the British, he played a leading part in negotiating independence. Elected Zambia's first President. A military coup led to multi-party elections in 1991 where he lost to Frederick Chiluba

Kenneth Robinson

Labour politician who served as a government whip from 1950-1951, and Privy Councillor in 1964. As Minister of Health in Harold Wilson's first government, he oversaw the banning of cigarette advertising on television and the reintroduction of prescription charges. Appointed Minister of Planning and Land in 1968 but left parliament the same year


Largest tribe in Kenya, forming 22% of the population. Active in the fight against colonialism, the Kikuyu Central Association, led by Jomo Kenyatta, was set up in the 1920s

Kim II Sung

North Korean soldier. Founded the Korean People's Revolutionary Army in 1932 and led the long struggle against Japanese occupation. He proclaimed the North Korean Republic in 1948, and became the Soviet-backed Prime Minister between 1948-1972 and President between 1972-1994. He established a unique personality cult and created an isolationist, Stalinist political-economic system

King Hussein

Ruler of Jordan from 1952 until his death in 1999. Guiding his country through four decades of Arab-Israeli conflict within a Cold War context, he successfully balanced the pressures of Arab nationalism, the difficulties of sheltering a large Palestinian refugee population and the attraction of Western-style development

Kingsley Wood, Sir

Conservative MP and Minister between 1918-1943. Secretary of State for Air leading up to the Second World War, and Chancellor of the Exchequer between 1940-1943


Centre of the northern Iraq oilfields, and important source of oil since 1927. A mixed population of Iraqis, Arabs and Kurds, it has long been a centre of Kurdish demands for their own homeland

kith and kin

Phrase used to mean friends, relations and neighbours. Used in Commonwealth countries in the 1960s among white settlers from Great Britain


Kohima in the Naga Hills of Assam, north-east India, was an important hill station on the only road between the major British supply base at Dimapur and Imphal

Korean War

Lasting from 1950-1953. An attempt by the Soviet-backed North to unify the country by conquest led to a UN-backed force being sent to Korea. This eventually led to a truce along the 38th parallel, the starting point of the conflict, which still continues. An estimated 4 million people, mostly civilians, died in the conflict


Chinese nationalist party founded 1891 by Sun Yat Sen to encourage democratic government and social reform, it played a prominent part in the 1911 Chinese revolution. Led by Chiang Kai-Shek it became the effective Chinese government from 1928 but became increasingly corrupt. Fled to Taiwan in 1949 after defeat in Civil War


Strategically important town on the River Tigris in Mesopotamia

Kwame Nkrumah

Ghanaian statesman, prime minister and President between 1960-1966. Leader of the independence party, and influential in the Pan-African Movement. Increasingly hardline, he set up a one-party state but was overthrown by a military coup in 1966. Regarded as one of the founding fathers of African Nationalism

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