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Glossary - G

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Gallipoli Peninsula

The Gallipoli peninsula is located in the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles straits to the east

Gaza Strip

Coastal strip of land bordering Egypt and Israel


Libyan coastal town, 30 miles west of Tobruk

General and Municipal Workers Union

A general trade union, formed by amalgamation in 1924 and affiliated to the Labour Party. It subsequently merged with other unions. Its members were drawn from many areas of industry, but particularly manual workers in local government and the health service.

General Council (TUC)

30-strong group of trade union leaders, set up by the Trades Union Congress (TUC) in 1921 to co-ordinate industrial action and settle inter-union disputes. Very influential in the Labour Party.

General Dyer

British Army General and instigator of the Amritsar Massacre in 1919, where unarmed Indian protestors were fired on by British troops. 379 were killed and over 1200 were injured. A Commission of Inquiry severely censured Dyer who was forced to resign, amid great controversy at home in England.

General Electric Company

Major UK company involved in domestic and military electronics. In the First World War it was heavily involved in producing radios, lamps and searchlights, also playing a significant part in the production of radar for the Second World War. Involved in developing the National Grid, and famous for Osram light bulbs

General Harrison

The Commander of the British garrison in Chanak in 1922, sent there to protect the Dardanelles. Threatened by Turkish forces, Lloyd George insisted that the British troops hold their ground. The crisis led to the fall of Lloyd George's coalition government

General Montgomery

Successful British Army commander, particularly in the Second World War. Nicknamed 'Monty', his Allied forces were victorious at El Alamein, October 1942, subsequently helping expel the Axis Powers from North Africa. He commanded all Allied ground forces in North-West Europe during Operation Overlord, until after the Battle of Normandy in 1944

General Naguib

Responsible for the 1952 coup which overthrew King Faisal in Egypt, initiating the 'Egyptian revolution' which abolished the monarchy. Although he became the first President of the new Republic in 1953, he was deposed by Nasser in 1954, remaining under house arrest until his release by President Sadat in 1972

General Slim

British soldier who fought in Mesopotamia in the First World War, but best known for his leadership of the 'Forgotten Army' in the successful Burma Campaign of the Second World War, for which he was knighted. Chief of Imperial Staff between 1948-1952, and a successful Governor-General of Australia between 1953-1960

General Suharto

Indonesian military leader and President from 1967-1998. Strongly anti-communist, he received much Western support during the Cold War, providing a strong central government leading to a growth in living standards

General Yuan Shih-k'ai

Chinese soldier and president who rose to prominence after the 1911 revolution. Declared himself President in 1912, but lost support in 1915 after giving in to Japan's '21 demands' and was subsequently overthrown

Geoffrey Crowther, Sir

Economist, editor of 'The Economist' between 1938-1950 and chairman of the Central Advisory Council for Education between 1956-1960

Geoffrey Lloyd

Conservative politician and MP from 1931-1945 and 1950-1959. Held a succession of minor ministerial posts, including Parliamentary Private Secretary (PPS) to Stanley Baldwin and was Chairman of the Oil Control Board from 1939-1945. Was Governor of the BBC between 1946-1949, and a life peer from 1974 until his death in 1984

George Barnes

Trade union leader and politician. Elected Labour MP in 1906, he served as Party Leader between 1910-1911. Was a minister in Lloyd George's wartime coalition government. When Labour left the coalition in 1918 Barnes refused to resign and was expelled from the Party. Resigned as Minister in 1920

George Bolton, Sir

British civil servant and former Director of the Bank of England

Conservative politician and MP from 1931-1945 and 1950-1959. Held a succession of minor ministerial posts, including Parliamentary Private Secretary (PPS) to Stanley Baldwin and was Chairman of the Oil Control Board from 1939-1945. Was Governor of the BBC between 1946-1949, and a life peer from 1974 until his death in 1984

George C. Marshall

American military leader regarded by Churchill as the 'organiser of victory' for his leadership of Allied forces in the Second World War. After the war, as Secretary of State, he originated the 'Marshall Aid' plan for post-war reconstruction in Europe, for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953

George Isaacs

British Labour politician and trade unionist, sat on the General Council of the Trades Union Congress (TUC). Appointed to a Royal Commission on Workmen's Compensation in 1938 and was President of the World Trade Union Conference in 1945. He served as Minister of Labour and National Service from 1945, and as Minister of Pensions 1951, retiring in 1959

George Strauss

Long-serving British Labour MP. Briefly expelled from the Party in 1939 for supporting Stafford Cripp's anti-fascist 'Popular Front' movement. He served at the Ministry of Transport between 1945-1947, and as Minister of Supply between 1947-1951. 'Father of the House' between 1974-1979. Made a life peer in 1979

George Tomlinson

Labour MP. Minister for Food between 1945-1947 and Minister for Education between 1947-1951

George Woodcock

General Secretary of the Trades Union Congress (TUC) from 1960-1969. A moderate union official, he launched an internal inquiry into trade union purpose and structure. Served on the Royal Commission on Trade Unions and Employers' Associations between 1965-1966 and in 1969 was chairman of the newly formed Independent Commission on Industrial Relations

Georges Clemenceau

French statesman. Prime Minister between 1917-1920. Injected new vigour into the French war effort and chaired the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Sought to destroy Germany's ability to wage war, and pressed unsuccessfully for full compensation, arguing that Germany should pay the full cost of the war

Georges Pompidou

French statesman, premier and president. Helped de Gaulle draft the constitution for the Fifth Republic, negotiated a settlement in the Algerian War, and played a key role in settling the political crisis of 1968. Elected President following de Gaulle's sudden resignation. Allowed Britain into the European Economic Community (EEC)

German Democratic Republic (GDR)

Socialist state created by the Soviet Union in 1949 in the Soviet zone of occupied Germany and the Soviet sector of occupied Berlin. After the opening of the Berlin Wall in 1989 the German Democratic Republic (GDR) joined with the Federal Republic of Germany to form a united Germany


Britain's smallest colony and a continuing cause of contention with Spain

Gilbert Islands

British colony in the Pacific Ocean. Autonomous in 1971, the Gilberts opted for independence as Kiribati in 1979

Godfrey Huggins, Sir

Briton who emigrated to Southern Rhodesia and entered politics. Became Prime Minister in 1933 and served for 23 years. Strong advocate of the Central African Federation, with white minority rule, became the Federation's first prime minister in 1953. Made a British peer in 1956

Golan Heights

Strategic plateau and mountainous region which borders Israel, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan

Gold Standard

Currency system operating until the First World War. The value of the British pound was fixed against other currencies on the basis of its value in gold

Great Powers

Collective name given to the most powerful countries in the world after the First World War (those on the victorious side). Became the driving force for maintaining peace through the new League of Nations organisation. They had more power and influence within the League

Greek People's Liberation Army (ELAS)

Popular Communist-led resistance group during the German occupation in the Second World War. Attempted, with support from Yugoslavia, to seize power in Greece after the Second World War, leading to a vicious civil war which the Royalists finally won in 1949 with help from the US (under legislation of the Truman Doctrine)

Green Paper

A consultation document used to obtain views and ideas. In government these are issued frequently and are generally open-ended. They may simply propose a strategy to be implemented in the details of other legislation, or they may set out proposals on which the government wishes to gauge public opinion

Gustav Stresemann

German Chancellor and Foreign Minister during the Weimar republic from 1923-1929. He believed in 'fulfilment' and won the confidence of the Western Powers by trying to implement the Treaty of Versailles. His greatest achievement was reconciliation with France

Guy Burgess

British intelligence officer and double agent who worked for the USSR. Recruited at Cambridge University, he was part of the Cambridge Five spy ring that betrayed secrets to the Soviets before and during the Cold War by transmitting secret Foreign Office and MI5 documents that described Allied military strategy

Gwilym Lloyd George

Liberal politician and son of David Lloyd George. From 1931 until his retirement in 1957 he held several minor ministerial posts