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Glossary - D

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Dalmatian Coast

Region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mainly in Croatia

Dardanelles

Turkish Straits linking the Sea of Marmosa and the Aegean Sea

David Eccles

Conservative MP and Peer, who served as a minister under Churchill, Eden, Macmillan and Heath. Helped organise the Coronation in 1953. As Minister of Arts in the 1970s clashed with the Arts Council over the funding of controversial plays. Died in 1999.

David Lloyd George

Liberal politician and Prime Minister. As Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1909 he forced through the 'People's Budget' introducing Old Age Pensioners (OAPs). As Munitions Minister in 1915 helped to solve the shortage of shells. Became Prime Minister in 1916 and played a crucial part in the Paris Peace Settlement of 1919.

David Maxwell-Fyfe

Conservative politician and lawyer. Took part in the Nuremberg War Trials and played a part in drafting the European Convention of Human Rights. As Home Secretary refused clemency to Derek Bentley who was subsequently hanged.

David Ormsby-Gore

Conservative politician and diplomat. After wartime service he was elected in 1950 and held minor ministerial posts. He was Ambassador to the United States between 1961-1965 and knew the Kennedys personally from their time in London. He became a peer in 1965

Dawes Plan

The 1924 US plan to enable Weimar Germany to keep up its reparations payments. It provided loans to stabilise the German economy, fixed a scale of annual payments in gold raised from taxation rather than in goods and reorganised the German Reichsbank

Delamere, Lord

The most influential settler in Kenya in 1901-1931, he believed in white political supremacy but is best remembered for his tireless efforts to develop Kenyan agriculture. He pioneered the East Africa dairy industry, the cross-breeding of animals, maize production and the manufacture of hardy varieties of wheat for the Kenyan highlands

Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK)

Name given to Korea north of the 38th parallel after the Second World War

Denis Healey

Right-wing Labour politician. Stood for election as party leader three times but lost each time. As Chancellor of the Exchequer tried to introduce an effective incomes policy but failed due to union opposition, and was forced into seeking a humiliating loan from the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Made a life peer in 1992

Denmark Straits

A strait between Greenland and Iceland

Dennis Vosper

Conservative MP who held minor ministerial posts between 1950-1963. Leader of a parliamentary delegation to the West Indies in 1958, he became a Life Peer in 1964

Derna

Coastal town in Libya

Destroyers

Small, fast warships equipped with guns and torpedoes to defend and protect other ships against submarines and aircraft. Particularly important in the Second World War for convoy escort duty

Devonshire, Lord

Ninth Duke of Devonshire. A Liberal MP from 1891-1908 until he inherited the title. He was a respected Governor-General of Canada from 1916-1921. On returning to England after his term in Canada, he worked for the League of Nations and was then Secretary of State for the Colonies from 1922-1924

Dhofaris

The people of the province of Dhofar in Oman

distant-water

Fishing grounds outside of national coastal fishing zones. Increasingly competed over by factory fishing trawlers since the 1980s, as over-fishing has resulted in lower catches. Countries have since increased the area of their own coastal fisheries' jurisdiction

Dogger Bank

A shallow area of the North Sea and productive fishing ground about 100km off the coast of Britain

Dominion

Term that refers to an autonomous country in the British Empire and British Commonwealth. These states included Canada, Australia and  New Zealand. After 1948 the term was used for independent nations that kept the British monarch as their head of state. These nations included India, Pakistan and Kenya

Donald MacLean

British traitor. Recruited by the Soviet Union while at Cambridge, he entered the Diplomatic Service in 1935. Serving in key positions in Washington between 1944-1950 and then in London, he was able to supply the Russians with classified and confidential information. He disappeared in 1951, reappearing in the Soviet Union in 1956

Dounreay

Site of five nuclear reactors in the North of Scotland - three civil and two military - since the Second World War. The reactors were closed in 1994

Dresden bombing

One of the most controversial Allied actions of the Second World War. In four raids between 13-15 February 1945, 1300 heavy bombers dropped 3,900 tons of high explosive and incendiary bombs. They caused a firestorm that completely destroyed the city centre and the deaths of between 25,000 and 40,000 civilians

dual mandate

This was the belief that a colonial power had a double responsibility. To its colonial peoples, it owed material and moral advancement leading to self-government. To the outside world it had the obligation to see that the natural resources of its colonies were developed and exploited

Duncan Sandys

Conservative politician. As Minister for Defence he was responsible for the Defence Review of 1957 that ended conscription. As Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations between 1960-1964 he played a major role in de-colonisation

Dungeness

A shingle headland on the Romney Marsh in Kent

Dwight D. Eisenhower

American Army General and American President between 1953-1961. During the Second World War was Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe, with responsibility for planning and implementing D-Day. As President, he oversaw the cease-fire of the Korean War, and made nuclear weapons a higher defence priority

dyarchy

Dyarchy is a system of dual rule, either of a government or of an organisation, in which two diarchs are the heads of state. The Montagu-Chelmsford reforms of British India, for example, prescribed a "dyarchy" of ministers who were individually responsible to the legislature