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Region located in south eastern Ethiopia, predominantly inhabited by Somali Muslims


The largest of the Ryukyu islands, south of Japan

Operation Anvil

Codename given to the planned invasion of Southern France in 1944, designed to complement Operation Hammer, the plan to invade Normandy. Both Operation Anvil and Operation Hammer were subsequently renamed Operation Dragoon and Operation Overlord respectively

Operation Bolero

A strategic plan in April 1942 to move US troops and aircraft to Great Britain in preparation for the initial cross-channel invasion, known as Operation Roundup. A large movement of men and materials, laying the groundwork for Operation Overlord

Operation Coronet

Planned to follow the successful implementation of Operation Olympic. Airbases established after securing a foothold on Kyushu Island would be used to give air cover of a massive amphibious landing on beaches near Tokyo, scheduled for December 1945. The plan became redundant after the US dropped the 'A' bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Operation Crusader

Part of the Western Desert Campaign in the Second World War from 18 November - 30 December 1941. It was the third attempt by the British Eighth Army to relieve Tobruk, which had been under siege from Rommel's 'Afrika Korps' since April 1941

Operation Dragoon

Allied invasion of southern France, August 1944. Known as Operation Anvil during the planning stages, it complemented Operation Hammer, later renamed Overlord. As German forces retreated rapidly, the Allies advanced, despite a shortage of fuel. Dragoon forces met up with southern thrusts from Overlord in mid-September

Operation Market Garden

An allied airborne military operation from September 17 to September 25 1944 during the Second World War. It planned to secure a series of bridges over the main rivers of German-occupied Netherlands, allowing armoured units to advance rapidly and cross the River Rhine into Germany. Failure to secure the bridge at Arnhem resulted in its abandonment

Operation Olympic

First part in an American plan to occupy and defeat Japan in November 1945. It entailed a massive amphibious landing on Kyushu, the furthest main island south of Japan. Once a foothold was established, airbases would be set up to support the second part of the plan, Operation Coronet

Operation Overlord

1944 campaign on the Western Front. One of the largest amphibious operations ever, 160,000 Allied troops crossed the English Channel on D-Day (6 June) in the Normandy landings. By the end of August more than 3 million troops had pushed the German forces back, liberating Paris on 25 August

Operation Pedestal

In August 1942 a convoy of 50 ships successfully broke the long Axis siege of Malta and delivered badly needed supplies. Strategically important, Malta was the base from which Allied surface ships, submarines and aircraft attacked Axis convoys carrying supplies to their forces in Northern Africa

Operation Round-up

A 1942 plan to invade Northern France in the spring of 1943. Drawn up by General Eisenhower, it showed American enthusiasm for an early entry into Europe. Given the shortage of landing craft and other resources, it proved unrealistic and was never executed, although parts were incorporated into Operation Overlord

Operation Torch

The Allies invasion plan for north Africa in November 1942


City on the Mediterranean coast of modern Algeria


Legislation formally made in the name of the Monarch by the Privy Council. The President of the Council reads out batches of Orders-in-Council drafted by the government in front of the Monarch at their monthly meetings. Usually the Monarch agrees with the Orders, which then pass in to law

Organisation for the Maintenance of Supplies (OMS)

A Government-based scheme set up to help the British public during the General Strike of 1926. It was created to carry out vital services during the Strike, such as driving buses and trams. It also printed and distributed the British Gazette - a pro-government, anti-Trades Union Congress (TUC) paper

Organisation of European Economic Co-operation

International organisation set up in 1948 to help administer the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Europe after the Second World War. Renamed the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1961 and remains an effective international forum

Osbert Peake

Lawyer and Conservative politician and MP for Leeds between 1929-1956. Minister for Social Insurance between 1951-1953 and Pensions and National Insurance 1953-1955. Argued for maintaining the value of benefits, even in a time of inflation. Became Viscount Ingleby in 1956


Belgian coastal city, formerly a ferry port to England

Otto Clarke

British civil servant who worked in various ministries during the Second World War and joined the Treasury in 1945

Ottoman Caliphate

Title adopted by the sultan of the Ottoman Empire, as de facto leader of the Islamic world. He personally embodied the government of the Ottoman Empire. The Caliphate was constitutionally abolished in March 1924, following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey. The Sultan and his family were exiled.

Ottoman Empire

Large European and Asian Empire ruled by the Ottomans from Constantinople. It collapsed at the end of the First World War, becoming the Republic of Turkey in 1920.