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* *Babington, Anthony (1561-1586) *
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* A Catholic supporter of Mary, Queen of Scots, Babington served as her page in 1577 and later became active in the circle of Catholic exiles in Europe, which included Charles Paget, Thomas Morgan, Don Bernardino de Mendoza and John Ballard. Ballard and Babington plotted against Elizabeth I in 1586, exchanging encrypted letters with Mary, which led to her execution. Babington was publicly executed on 20 September 1586. *
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* *Ballard, John (d.1586) *
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* A Catholic priest educated at Cambridge and Rheims, Ballard persuaded Anthony Babington to organise a plot to assassinate Elizabeth I. He travelled to Paris in 1586 to secure the support of Bernardino de Mendoza and an introduction to Mary through Mendoza. Mary instructed Ballard to negotiate for the assistance of the Pope and the Spanish King through Mendoza. In his travels he also met Gilbert Gifford, a secret agent of Sir Francis Walsingham. Ballard was arrested on 4 August 1586. Under torture he confessed and incriminated Babington. They were executed together on 20 September 1586. *
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* *Bonaparte, Joseph (1768-1844) top
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* Brother of Napoleon, appointed King of Naples (1806) and of Spain (1808-1813); he was sacked as Commander-in-Chief after defeat at Vittoria in 1813. *
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* *Bonaparte, Napoleon (Napoleon I) (1769-1821) *
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* Educated at French military schools, Napoleon distinguished himself during the French Revolution and later led France to victory in military campaigns across Europe. In 1799 he staged a coup d'etat and was named first consul. In 1804 he proclaimed himself Emperor. The toll of the Peninsular War of 1808-14, combined with the loss of 500,000 men in Russia during the harsh winter of 1812, led to the invasion of France by allied coalition forces and Napoleon's abdication in April 1814 and exile in Elba. He returned from exile but was finally defeated at Waterloo in 1815 and was confined on St. Helena until his death. *
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* *Curle, Gilbert (d.1609) *
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* Scottish cipher secretary to Mary, Queen of Scots, Curle encrypted Mary’s letters at the time of the Babington Plot. He was arrested and interrogated by Walsingham’s agents in August 1586 and testified that the letters were genuine. He was imprisoned for almost one year for his part in the plot. His colleague, Claude de la Boisseliere Nau, (d. 1605) had joined Mary’s service as a secretary in 1575 and was also responsible for Mary’s correspondence. Like Curle, he was interrogated in 1586. He was freed in September 1587 to return to France. *
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* *Drake, Sir Francis (c.1540-1596) top
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* Drake was the first Englishman to sail around the world. He made many profitable voyages to the New World and was partly funded by Elizabeth I. After a successful raid on the Spanish fleet at Cadiz in 1587, he returned to England a hero. He was vice Admiral of the Navy and played an important role in defeating the Spanish Armada (1588). *
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* *Gifford, Gilbert (c.1561-1590) *
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* A friend of John Ballard, Gifford was involved in the Babington Plot to assassinate Elizabeth I. He betrayed Ballard and Babington by passing all the secret letters between Mary and the conspirators to Sir Francis Walsingham. As a double agent, Gifford was known as No. 4 in London and used many aliases, such as Colerdin, Pietro and Cornelys. He fled to the continent in 1586 as the plot unravelled. *
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* *Goering, Hermann (1893-1946) *
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* Goering was a leading figure in the Nazi Party and helped build and run the Nazi police state in Germany before and during the war. He committed suicide in 1946 after the International Military Tribunal had sentenced him to death. *
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* *Marmont, Marshal Auguste Frédéric Louis Viesse de Marmont, Duc de Raguse (1774-1852) top
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* Marmont was of noble stock and became Major General at just 26. He was favoured by Napoleon throughout campaigns in Italy and Egypt and became Marshal in 1809. He was commander of the French Army of Portugal from 1811, but was defeated by Wellington at the Battle of Salamanca in July 1812 in which he was badly injured. Later his behaviour displeased Bonapartists and his name inspired the French verb raguser, meaning ‘to betray’. *
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* *Mary, Queen of Scots (1542-1587) *
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* Mary was Queen of Scotland until her abdication in 1567 and subsequent flight into England. From 1568 until her execution in 1587, she was imprisoned under the orders of Elizabeth I, and acted as a focal point for civil unrest and plots to overthrow the Protestant Queen. *
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* *Masterman, John Cecil (1891-1977) *
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* Masterman was the chairman of the Twenty Committee, which controlled double agents in Britain. An academic and author, he eventually became Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University. He wrote an official report of his wartime experiences in which he discussed the careers of many of his agents. This was published as ‘The Double-Cross System in the War of 1939-1945’ (1972). *
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* *Mendoza, Bernardino de top
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* Spanish Ambassador in London (1578-84) and supporter of the cause of Mary, Queen of Scots, Mendoza was implicated in the Throckmorton Plot and exiled in 1584. As the Spanish Ambassador in Paris in 1586, he was involved in the Babington Plot. *
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* *Morgan, Thomas (1543-c.1606) *
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* Cipher clerk to Cardinal James Beaton, Mary, Queen of Scots’ ambassador in Paris, Morgan was imprisoned in the Bastille in 1584 for plotting against Elizabeth I. He played a key role in the Babington Plot by recommending Gifford and Babington to Mary. *
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* *Norfolk, Duke of (Thomas Howard) (1538-1572) *
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* The senior peer from England’s leading Catholic family during the reign of the Protestant Elizabeth I, Norfolk was a favoured marriage candidate for Mary, Queen of Scots and a focus for Catholic plots against Elizabeth. His implication in the Ridolfi Plot led to his execution in 1572. *
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* *Paget, Charles (d.1612) top
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* Paget was the secretary for Cardinal James Beaton, Mary, Queen of Scots’ ambassador in Paris in 1572. He was also a double agent working for Sir Francis Walsingham. Paget was in constant correspondence with Curle and Nau, Mary’s secretaries, and was an associate of Thomas Morgan, Beaton’s cipher clerk, who was involved in the Babington plot against Elizabeth I. *
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* *Phelippes, Thomas *
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* Educated at Cambridge and a language specialist, Phelippes was recruited by Sir Francis Walsingham and became his leading codebreaker. In his early career Phelippes worked for Sir Amias Paulet when he was Elizabeth I’s ambassador in Paris. In 1586 his codebreaking and forgery skills uncovered the Babington Plot to assassinate Elizabeth. *
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* *Stewart (Stuart), Henry, Lord Darnley (1545-1567) *
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* By birth Darnley was a candidate for the English throne after Elizabeth. In 1561 he was sent to France by his mother to woo Mary, Queen of Scots. In 1565 he made a political marriage to Mary who wanted access to the English throne. However, this ended bitterly when he murdered Mary’s friend Rizzio. Darnley was left politically isolated and died in mysterious circumstances in Edinburgh. *
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* *Throckmorton, Francis (1554-1584) top
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* Educated at Oxford and a Catholic supporter of Mary, Queen of Scots, Throckmorton acted as an intermediary between Mary and her agent, Thomas Morgan. He was implicated in a plot against Elizabeth. Arrested by Walsingham and tortured, he revealed plans for an invasion led by the Duke of Guise and reinforced by Catholic exiles and troops from the Netherlands. Throckmorton was executed and the Spanish Ambassador, Bernardino de Mendoza, was sent home. *
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* *Walsingham, Sir Francis (c.1530-1590) *
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* Educated at Cambridge and from a Protestant family, Walsingham lived in exile throughout the reign of Mary I. He worked for Elizabeth I on diplomatic and political missions in Europe, gathering intelligence and a network of informants. He returned to England and became Elizabeth’s Principal Secretary in 1573. *
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* *Welchman, Gordon *
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* Welchman joined Bletchley Park in 1939 and was responsible for the organisational structure established to allow teams of cryptanalysts to break the German codes. Welchman also played a critical role in the development of a successful Bombe, and later became Assistant Director of Bletchley Park with special responsibility for the mechanisation of decrypting. *
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* *Wellesley, Arthur (Duke of Wellington) (1769-1852) top
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* Born into an aristocratic Irish family, Wellesley joined the British Army in 1787 and built a military reputation in India before leading the British forces in the Peninsular War, eventually forcing Napoleon’s troops out of Spain. In 1814 Wellesley received a hero’s welcome in Britain and was made the Duke of Wellington. He ended his military career as commander-in-chief of the British forces with victory at Waterloo on 18 June 1815. He later became a Tory MP and Prime Minister (1828-30). *
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