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Glossary - E

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Eamon de Valera

A leader of Ireland's struggle for independence in the early 20th century, and of the Republican anti-Treaty opposition in the ensuing Civil War. Took part in the Easter Rising of 1916 and served in many offices from 1917 to 1973, including Prime Minister and President.

Earl Peel

Conservative Party politician William Wellesley Peel, who held several minor ministerial posts.

East Korean Support Group

A largely US Naval group, joined by HMS Triumph. Used for strikes against North Korea in 1950. UK 'Firefly' aircraft had limited range, so their choice of targets was limited. In September HMS Triumph played a small part in the covering force during the landings at Inchon that transformed the war.

Edmund Allenby, Sir

British Field Marshall and administrator who was nicknamed the 'Bloody Bull'. He served in the Boer War and on the Western Front in the First World War. He became famous for his tactical expertise and leadership of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force in the conquest of Palestine and Syria between 1917-1918.

Edouard Herriott

Radical French politician. Three times leader of short-lived French Governments between 1924 and 1932. Advocate of a European Union. He opposed the Munich Pact, supported the war and opposed the Armistice. Interned by the Vichy Government in 1940 and imprisoned by the Nazis. Liberated in 1945.

Edward Carson, Sir

Ulster Unionist and Conservative MP, he became Attorney-General in 1915 and joined the War Cabinet 1917-1918. He is remembered for his role as organiser of the Ulster Volunteers and his violent opposition to Irish Home Rule, reviving the slogan, 'Ulster will fight, and Ulster will be right!'

Edward Heath

Conservative politician and Prime Minister between 1970-1974. A committed pro-European, he led Britain into the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1973. His confrontation with the miners led to the Three Day Week and to two lost elections in 1974. Replaced by Margaret Thatcher as Party leader in 1975

Edward Hilton Young, Sir

Originally a Liberal, he was Financial Secretary to the Treasury in 1921, Chief Whip in 1922 and editor of the 'Financial News' between 1926-1929. In 1926 he joined the Conservatives, and served as a delegate to the League of Nations Assembly between 1926-1927. He was Minister for Export Credits in 1929 and Minister for Health between 1931-1935.

Edward Short

Labour MP and Minister under Harold Wilson. Deputy Leader of the Party between 1972-1976. Probably best known for 'Short Money' - the allowance paid by government to fund the parliamentary office of the Leader of the Opposition.

Edwin Montagu

Liberal MP and advocate of Indian independence. Most famous for the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms of 1919. Resigned as Secretary of State for India in 1922 in protest over the slow pace of reform. An anti-Zionist who helped modify the 'Balfour Declaration' of 1917

Eilat

A busy port and Israel's southern-most city located on the Gulf of Eilat

El Agheila

Coastal city in South-West Libya

El Arish

Egyptian city on the Mediterranean coast of Sinai

Electrical Trades Union

In July 1920 ten unions merged to form the Amalgamated Engineering Union. The demand for armaments during the Second World War led to a rapid expansion of the industry. Women were admitted to the Union in 1943. It was originally a union for skilled members but quite soon included unskilled workers

Ellen Wilkinson

Left wing Labour MP. Nicknamed 'Red Ellen' on account of her hair and her politics. Took part in the Jarrow March. Became Minister of Education in the Attlee Government, the second woman to be a Cabinet Minister. Her School Milk Act 1946 gave free milk to all school children

Enoch Powell

Conservative MP from 1950-1974 and an Ulster Unionist MP from 1974-1987. Controversial throughout his career. Held strong and distinctive views on matters such as immigration and the United Kingdom's entry into the European Economic Community (EEC). Best remembered for his controversial 1968 "Rivers of Blood" speech in opposition to mass Commonwealth immigration to Britain

Eric Geddes, Sir

Conservative politician brought into Government in 1915, he held several significant military posts during the First World War. Remembered for his post-war comment, 'We shall squeeze the German lemon until the pips squeak', and for recommending heavy cuts in public expenditure, known as the 'Geddes Axe'

Eritrea

Part of Italian East Africa until liberated by British and Ethiopian forces in 1941

Ernest Bevin

British union leader and politician. Minister of Labour during the first world war and Foreign Secretary in the post-war Labour government. In 1922 was one of the founders of the Transport and General Workers' Union (TGWU). A firm opponent of fascism and appeasement. In the Second World War Bevin sent 48,000 draftees (Bevin Boys) to work in the coal industry

Ernest Brown

British Liberal politician and holder of minor Government offices between 1931-1940. Followed Sir John Simon and split from the Liberal Party in 1931 to set up the National Liberals. Perhaps best remembered for the Unemployment Insurance (Agriculture) Act of 1936, and work in settling trade disputes. National Liberals leader between 1940-1945

Ernest Gowers, Sir

British civil servant who served in many government departments before 1930. During Attlee's government he chaired a Royal Commission on capital punishment, becoming an abolitionist. He also investigated the preservation, maintenance and use of homes of outstanding historical or architectural interest

Erwin Rommel

Nazi Field Marshall during the Second World War, best known as the Commander of the Afrika Corps in Northern Africa, where he achieved major success until forced to retreat by the strongly-reinforced British Eighth Army. He committed suicide in 1944 after being implicated in the Bomb Plot to assassinate Hitler

Euphrates River

River nearly 2800 km long, flowing from Turkey through Iraq, becoming the Shatt al-Arab before flowing into the Persian Gulf

Evans and Christie

John Christie was a 54 year old serial murderer and sexual psychopath who murdered at least 6 women between 1949-1950. He gave evidence at the trial of Timothy Evans, who was executed (later posthumously pardoned) for crimes probably committed by Christie