How to look for records of... Apprentices and masters

How can I view the records covered in this guide?

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  • All

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This is a brief guide to researching records of an apprentice or master. Official records of apprentices were kept in England and Wales between 1710 and 1811, when stamp duty was payable on indentures of apprenticeship. Registers of the duty paid were kept by the Commissioners of Stamps.

What do I need to know before I start?

Try to find out:

  • the name and date of birth of the apprentice
  • in which area they were apprenticed and where the stamp duty would have been paid

What records can I see online?

Apprenticeship books (1710-1811)

Search the apprenticeship books from 1710 to 1811 (IR 1) on Ancestry.co.uk (£) by name of master or apprentice. Alternatively, you can browse the apprenticeship books on digital microfilm.

Indexes to apprenticeship books (1710-1774)

Browse the indexes of apprentices from 1710 to 1774 on findmypast.co.uk (£)

Indexes to apprentices registered in the Merchant Navy (1824-1910)

Search by name the indexes of apprentices registered in the Merchant Navy between 1824 to 1910 (BT 150/1-53) on Ancestry (£).

These index the original indentures in BT 151 and BT 152. Please note only a sample of the original indentures survive – for more information see below.

Articles of clerkship (1756-1874)

Search articles of clerkship (KB 105-107) by name on Ancestry (£). These are the contracts between an apprentice clerk, who wanted to become an attorney or solicitor, and an attorney who agreed to train the clerk. The contracts were often entered into by fathers (or other sponsors) on their sons’ behalf.

What records can I find at The National Archives at Kew?

Apprenticeship records of the merchant navy (1824-1953)

Consult BT 150 for indexes of apprentices registered in the merchant service between 1824 to 1953. Please note the indexes for 1824-1910 are available online (see above).

The earlier volumes give:

  •  the apprentice’s name
  • age
  • the date and terms of his indenture
  • the name of his master
  • the port where he signed on and the name of the ship (in later volumes only)

Browse by date and by port BT 151 and BT 152 for samples of the original indentures, including some for fishing vessels. Please note only a sample survive (a two month sample for every five years).

Apprenticeship records in the Admiralty (19th century onwards)

Browse records such as

  • ADM 12 under the headings ‘Boys’ (code 13) and ‘Apprentices in Dockyards’ (code 41.16)
  • ADM 1 and ADM 106
  • ADM 73/421 and ADM 73/448 for apprenticeship registers
  • CSC 10 for marks and results of examinations of dockyard and artificer apprentices from 1876

Board of Trade papers (1846-1895)

Find references to apprenticeships in the indexes to papers (BT 19). Read the catalogue details for BT 19 to find related correspondence from various departments of the Board.

Poor Law union indexes and papers (1836-1920)

Find mentions of apprenticeships in the index of subjects (MH 15). This index may help you find additional related papers of individual Poor Law unions in MH 12.

These records relate to children of paupers and orphans who were apprenticed out by the guardians and overseers of the poor. They frequently relate to administrative and policy issues.

To access these records you will either need to visit us, pay for research (£) or, where you can identify a specific record reference, order a copy (£).

What records can I find in other archives and organisations?

London Metropolitan Archives

Read the Business and employment page for guidance on what records are held at the London Metropolitan Archives.

Records held elsewhere

The National Archives’ catalogue has details of collections held by over 2500 archives across the UK. Search our catalogue and refine your results using the filters.

What other resources will help me find information?

Books

Search The National Archives’ bookshop to see whether any of the publications below may be available to buy. Alternatively, look in The National Archives’ library catalogue to see what is available to consult at Kew.

Amanda Bevan, Tracing your ancestors in The National Archives (The National Archives, 2006)

Paul Carter and Kate Thompson, Sources for local historians (2005)

Websites

Search London Apprenticeship Abstracts 1442-1850 on the Findmypast website (£), which contains some records of London livery companies.

Visit the Children’s Homes website for information on apprenticeships and the training of poor children.

Journal articles

Read ‘The City Boys: records of London apprentices’ by C Webb and E Churchill (Ancestors, 21, 2004).

Did you know?

The apprenticeship books are divided into Town Registers (London) and Country Registers (elsewhere), depending on where the stamp duty was paid.

If the apprenticeship was in Middlesex or one of the home counties the duty may have been paid in London and the details entered in one of the London registers.

From 1710-1811 the master paid stamp duty for taking on the apprentice.  The payment could be made at the start of the apprenticeship or any time up to one year after the expiry of the indenture.

The rate was 6d (sixpence) for every £1 under £50 which the master received for taking on the apprentice, and the rate of 1s (one shilling) for every £1 above £50. The indentures on which duty was payable cover Great Britain but not Ireland.

You may not be able to find records for common trades such as weaving or other 18th century industries because

  • informal indentures became increasingly common with fathers often teaching sons and nephews
  • the Statute of Apprentices only applied to trades which existed when it was passed in 1563