The National Archives Uniting the Kingdoms?
Print page Close window



Dolforwyn Castle: the cause of war

Transcript 1 | Transcript 2


This manifesto was drawn up at the end of 1276, to justify Edward's attack on Llywelyn. Because it is so badly damaged, the translation from the French is not exact.

The ancestors of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd always held their lands of Wales of the kings of England in chief, doing homage and fealty, and receiving right in the court of the kings of England. Llywelyn did his homage and oath of fealty to King Henry [III], and then broke his fealty to the king…[He allied] with Simon de Montfort…against the king, so that [he was forced] to make peace with Llywelyn, from his prison. And Llywelyn occupied many lands of the Marchers wrongfully and by violence.

And afterwards, when King [Edward I] returned from overseas, he ordered Llywelyn to come and do his homage in a place convenient to him…and offered him a safe conduct. And Llywelyn did not deign to approach... and did nothing, but rob, slay and burn... The king assembled his lords... it was judged that the king should attack Llywelyn by force... as one who would not obey the king as he ought...

Go to top of page Print page Close window