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Uniting the Kingdoms? 1066-1603




After the Norman conquest in 1066, Scotland and England were uneasy neighbours for more than two centuries. Then, in 1296, Edward I claimed overlordship of Scotland. This marked the start of full-scale war between the two countries, a war that was pursued intermittently for almost the next three centuries.

Under Elizabeth I, however, religion became the major factor in Anglo-Scottish relations. The queen formed an alliance with Scottish Protestants and this created the conditions for the English and Scottish crowns to be united, in 1603, under James VI of Scotland and I of England.

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