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Uniting the Kingdoms? 1066-1603




From 1066, when England was conquered by a Norman duke and his followers, the English kings occupied extensive parts of France. The borders of these lands fluctuated regularly, as conflicting political and dynastic ambitions sparked frequent warfare between the monarchs of France and England. By 1558, however, England had lost all its continental possessions. Before the end of Elizabeth I's reign, England was fighting Spain (in alliance with France) and expanding its horizons to the 'New World'.

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