1. Why use this guide?
Use this guide to find advice on searching for further records at The National Archives that shed light on military nursing personnel or policy.
2. Essential information
The British Army, Royal Air Force and Royal Navy each have their own nursing services, more details of which can be found in section 10. Records of nurses and nursing from each service are therefore found in separate and distinct series of records.
You can search and download British Army nurses' service records from our website.
The National Archives holds no service records of Royal Air Force nurses.
Contact the MOD for all British Army, Royal Navy and Royal Air Force service records beyond 1922 (see section 9).
3. British Army nurses
There are various records of British Army nurses beyond the service and medal records highlighted in our British Army nurses guide.
The earliest records of nurses in the British Army held at The National Archives start around 1820. It was not until the late 1800s that significant numbers of records or anything equating to detailed service records began to be kept. Before the 1850s, British Army medical services were organised on a regimental basis. Each regiment had its own medical officer and the male orderlies who staffed the regimental hospital were seconded from the regiment.
The first instance of specialist civilian female nurses serving with the British Army was during the Crimean War (1854-1856), when Florence Nightingale led a group of volunteer nurses to Scutari. Professionally trained nurses were not officially employed by the Army until the foundation of the Army Nursing Service in 1881, when the first service records for Army nurses began to be kept (see section 3.5 below).
It should be noted that even after the establishment of the QAIMNS in 1902, the service is referred to in many of the records simply as the Army Nursing Service or ANS.
3.1 Records of nurses who served in the Crimean War
|Date range||Description||Catalogue reference|
|c1851-c1856||Letters of recommendation for nurses applying to go to the Crimea (arranged alphabetically in bundles)||WO 25/264|
|1853-1857||Correspondence and memoranda to, from and about nurses in the Crimea||WO 43/963|
|1855-1858||Lists of ladies, nurses and orderlies embarked for England from the Crimea||WO 43/991|
3.2 Records of nurses who served in the First World War
|Date range||Branch or unit of British Army||Type of record||Content of record||Catalogue reference|
|1914-1918||QAIMNS||Disability pensions||Name, sometimes address, sometimes age, dates of pension commencement and ceasing, pension rate||PMG 42/1-12|
|1909-1928||QAIMNS||Pensions||Name, address, rank (i.e. nurse, sister or matron), pension details, date of death (if applicable)||PMG 34/1-5|
|1914-1918||Women's services, including nurses and VADs||Selection of medical sheets||Name, age, rank and treatment||MH 106/2207-2211|
|1914-1919||No 34 Casualty Clearing Station, 2nd and 19th General Hospitals, 4th Stationary Hospital, Queen Alexandra's Military Hospital at Millbank and Catterick Military Hospital||Hospital admission and discharge registers||Name, age, rank, years of service, disease contracted/injury sustained, dates of admission and discharge||MH 106|
3.3 Pre- and post-First World War records of nurses' pensions
Until the First World War very few nurses qualified for pensions.
|Date range||Description||Content of records||Catalogue reference|
|c1820-c1890||Royal Hospital Chelsea pension registers; the nurses are listed with the officers; the original document contains an index||Name, age on retirement, place of work, length of service, date of death (if applicable), and pension details||WO 23/93, WO 23/94, WO 23/95|
|c1857-1907||Royal Hopsital Chelsea registers; no index, but in rough date order||Name, date of appointment and resignation/retirement, age on appointment; later entries give date of birth||WO 23/181|
|1909-1928||Nurses in the QAIMNS||Name, address, rank (i.e. nurse, sister or matron), pension details, date of death (if applicable)||PMG 34/1-5|
|Date range||Branch of British Army||Type of record||Details found in these files||Catalogue reference|
|c1820-c1890||Medical Staff Corps||Casualty returns||Mainly soldiers and orderlies but a few entries for nurses; date of death; cause of death||WO 25/3462|
|1869-1891||National Aid Society; Army Nursing Service||Name and seniority rolls; service records (the original document contains a name and place index)||Date and sometimes place of birth; dates and places of service; awards and decorations; award of pension; date of resignation; sometimes date of death||WO 25/3955|
|1903-1926||Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service||Recommendations for appointment of staff nurses||Name, date of birth, occupation of father, whether single or widow, where educated, in which hospital trained (with dates), places and dates of nursing experience, matron's reference, appointment given||WO 25/3956|
4. Royal Navy nurses
Until 1883 nursing in the naval hospitals was usually undertaken by ex-seamen or marines, who were recruited as required from the shore establishments and who held no nursing qualifications. The establishment of the Naval Nursing Service in 1884 was the first instance of a unit in the Royal Navy staffed by trained nurses.
4.1 Royal Navy nurses at the Royal Greenwich Hospital, 1704-1865
|Date range||Information contained in the documents||Catalogue reference|
|1704-1864||Alphabetical lists of nurses||ADM 73/87 and ADM 73/88|
|1704-1865||Registers of service; all give name, date of entry and date and reason for leaving||ADM 73/83, ADM 73/84, ADM 73/85 and ADM 73/86|
|1783-1863||Name, age at time of entry, date of entry, where born, husband's Christian name, husband's date of death and in which service employed, amount of pension, whether husband hurt or wounded and on what service, number of children and ages at time of entry; details of husband and family are not completed for early entries||ADM 73/85|
|1817-1842||Ratings' widows applying for admission to Greenwich Hospital as nurses||ADM 6/329 and ADM 6/331|
4.2 Royal Navy nurses, 1884 onwards
The names of matrons and head sisters can be found in the Navy List from 1884. Navy Lists can be found in The National Archives public reading rooms in Kew and in specialist libraries. They provide an official list of officers, their ranks and seniority and the ships on which they served.
|Date range||Type of record, who it covers and how it is arranged||Details provided||Catalogue reference|
|1884-1909||Nursing sisters; the original document has an index||Name, rank, date of birth, date of entry and discharge||ADM 104/43|
|1890-1908||Annual reports of nursing sisters; for each year staff are listed in seniority order||Name, age, hospital where they are stationed, dates of service and very brief comments on character and work||ADM 104/95|
|1894-1929||Nursing sisters; arranged by dates of appointment; the original document has an index||Name, rank, date of birth, date of entry and discharge, next of kin, annual report marks, sick leave, comments on character and ability, training qualifications, and medal awards||ADM 104/161|
|1914-1919||QARNNS Reserves, signed up for wartime service only||Name, date of joining service, civilian hospital in which worked, naval hospital in which stationed, date of discharge||ADM 104/162, ADM 104/163, ADM 104/164 and ADM 104/165|
|c.1912-1927||Nursing sisters' and wardmasters' establishment book; contains an index to establishment (hospital or barracks); staff are listed in rough date order||Name, rank, date and cause of appointment, date and reason for discharge||ADM 104/96|
5. RAF nurses
The National Archives holds no service records of RAFNS nurses. Such records remain in the custody of the RAF (see section 9). However, you can find the names of some of the first nurses to be recruited among the papers relating to the establishment of the service. The correspondence in AIR 2 is a major source for such material. For example, the setting up of the service is the subject of AIR 2/93.
6. British Army nursing policy and administration records
There are all kinds of documents, including official letters and reports, on nursing matters in the British Army held at The National Archives. The principal record series codes for these documents are WO 32 and WO 33, though you will also find nursing policy and administration records in WO 30, WO 222 and WO 243. There are several ways to perform a search:
- Use Discovery, our catalogue, and enter either 'Code 2' (nursing services), 'Code 182' (medical) or 'Code 68' (women's services) as your search term, restricting your enquiry to search within record series code WO 32.
- Use Discovery, our catalogue, and enter 'nursing' as your search term, restricting your enquiry to search within any or all of record series codes WO 30, WO 32, WO 33, WO 222 or WO 243.
- Use the table below to locate specific document references (these are references that cannot be found using either of the methods above).
|Date range||Description||Catalogue reference|
|1847-1955||Adjutant General's papers||WO 162|
|1859||Hospital regulations||WO 33/7|
|1879||Proceedings of the mobilisation committee||WO 33/33|
|1883||Report on the nursing service in Egypt||WO 33/41|
|1901||Report of the Royal Commission on care and treatment of sick and wounded during the South African Campaign||WO 30/114|
|1902-1904||Advisory Board report on military hospitals in Great Britain: printed||WO 30/133|
|1914-1918||Papers relating to medical services||WO 161|
|1925-1938||QAIMNS and Queen Alexandra's Military Families Nursing Service: establishments||T 162/974|
|1941-1949||Advisory Board minutes||WO 32/9789|
7. Royal Navy nursing policy and administration records
For material on the history and development of the service, search record series ADM 116. This includes the reports of the Committee on the Organisation and training of the Sick Berth Staff of the Navy and the Nursing Staff of the Royal Naval Hospitals 1883-1884 (ADM 116/220) and the Committee on the Training of Medical Staff 1899 (ADM 116/1243, ADM 116/1244 and ADM 116/1245).
8. RAF nursing policy and administration records
The most useful record series for files that cover a wide variety of administrative and policy matters in the RAF is AIR 2. It covers rules and regulations, conditions of service for nurses, financial matters and so on. For example, the establishment of the RAF nursing service is the subject of documents in AIR 2/93, while the future of the service after the First World War is covered in AIR 2/155.
9. Records in other archives
Contact the Ministry of Defence (MOD) for British Army, Royal Navy and Royal Air Force nurses service records dating after the First World War. Contact details are available on the MOD website. Further information and a Subject Access Request form can be found on the Veterans UK website. They will charge a fee for conducting a search. Amongst the records held by the MOD are:
- Queen Alexandra's Royal Army Nursing Corps, 1939-1945
- Royal Navy service records from around 1920 to 1939 and sometimes later
- RAFNS service records
For Voluntary Aid Detachment nurses, 1914-1918 and 1939-1945, write to British Red Cross Museum and Archives, 44 Moorfields, London, EC2Y 9AL.
10. Background information
10.1 Early nursing services in the British Army
The nursing branch of the British Army is Queen Alexandra's Royal Army Nursing Corps (QARANC), though it did not operate under that name until 1949. The corps started life as Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service (QAIMNS), established in 1902, and its direct predecessor was the Army Nursing Service, which had been set up in 1881.
Prior to the formation of the Queen Alexandra's Royal Army Nursing Corps (QARANC) and its predecessor the Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service (QAIMNS), nurses serving with the British Army did so either as recruits or volunteers for specific wars or military campaigns or as members of relatively short-lived medical service organisations. Even after the formation of the QAIMNS, Army nurses were not given official military rank until 1926 and did not receive commissions until 1941.
The Medical Staff Corps, whose members were soldiers as opposed to professional nurses and medics, was created in 1855. This was reorganised in 1857, following the Crimean War, into the Army Hospital Corps and did include nurses amongst its workforce.
Princess Christian's Army Nursing Reserve was formed in March 1897 and was disbanded in 1907 when most of its members became part of QAIMNS. In July 1908 the Territorial Force Nursing Service (TFNS) was inaugurated as a supplementary service to the QAIMNS.
On 16 August 1909 the Voluntary Aid Detachment (VAD) was formed to provide nursing and medical services at times of war. It was organised by the British Red Cross Society which had previously been known as the British National Aid Society.
10.2 The first nursing services in the Royal Navy
A Naval Nursing Service was first established in 1884, at Haslar, in Portsmouth, and in Plymouth. In 1897 the service was extended to Chatham and Malta and, in 1901, to all Royal Naval Hospitals. In 1902, the service was renamed the Queen Alexandra's Royal Naval Nursing Service (QARNNS). There was also a QARNNS Reserve, of civilian nurses, for service in wartime only.
10.3 The establishment of the RAF Nursing Service
Proposals for the establishment of a Royal Air Force Nursing Service were submitted to the Treasury in early 1918, with the intention that it should last until the end of the First World War. Periods of appointment were for 12 months or the duration of the war if required, with six or 12 month renewable contracts after the completion of the first year. By January 1919 the nursing service was in operation. Matrons, sisters and staff nurses were appointed to an honorary military rank without command. The RAFNS was confirmed as a permanent independent service in 1921. In 1923 the service became Princess Mary's Royal Air Force Nursing Service (PMRAFNS).
11. Further reading
Ruth Cowen, A Nurse at the Front: The Great War Diaries of Sister Edith Appleton (Simon & Schuster, 2012) - available to buy
Ian Hay, One Hundred Years of Army Nursing (Caszell, 1953)
Bruno Pappalardo, Tracing Your Naval Ancestors (Public Record Office, 2003) - available to buy
Juliet Piggott, Queen Alexandra's Royal Army Nursing Corps, (Pen & Sword Books Ltd., 1990)
William Spencer, First World War Army Service Records (The National Archives, 2008) - available to buy
William Spencer, Medals: The Researcher's Guide (The National Archives, 2006)
Anne Summers, Angels and Citizens: British Women as Military Nurses, 1854-1914 (Threshold Press Ltd., 2000)
Nicola Tyrer, Sister in Arms: British Army Nurses Tell Their Story (Phoenix, 2009) - available to buy