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Gaba Tepe Intended site of the second Allied landing (by Australian and New Zealand troops) at Gallipoli on 25 April 1915, on the NW coast of the peninsula opposite Maidos. Possibly because of a navigational error, they were, in fact, put ashore further north at Ari Burnu. map

Galicia Region of central Europe, on the north side of the Carpathians; formerly part of the Habsburg empire, now in SE Poland and the Ukraine. map

Gallipoli Peninsula in NW Turkey between the Dardanelles and the Aegean Sea. Scene of the disastrous Allied campaign (February 1915-January 1916) to eliminate Turkey from the First World War. map

Gandhi, Mahatma (1869-1948) Indian political and religious leader, whose civil disobedience campaigns were a major part of India's struggle for independence from Britain. Supported Indian participation in the Allied war effort during the First World War.

German East Africa German colony consisting of Tanganyika and Rwanda-Urundi. Scene of the most protracted conflict between Allied and German forces in Africa during the First World War, largely because of the successful guerrilla tactics of the German commander Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck. After the eventual surrender of his forces on 25 November 1918, the territory was divided into mandates run by Britain (Tanganyika) and Belgium (Rwanda-Urundi). map

German High Seas Fleet Name by which the fleet of the German navy was commonly known.

German New Guinea Island in the western Pacific Ocean, north of Australia. A German colony prior to the First World War, it was seized by the Allies in 1914 and given as a mandate to Australia at the Paris peace conference in 1919.

German Samoa Collection of nine islands in the Pacific Ocean. A German colony prior to the First World War, it was seized by the Allies in 1914 and given as a mandate to New Zealand at the Paris peace conference in 1919.

German South West Africa German colony now known as Namibia. After an 11-month campaign, the last German forces there surrendered to South African troops in July 1915. South Africa was awarded the territory as a mandate at the Paris peace conference in 1919. map

Gold Coast British crown colony in West Africa; now known as Ghana. Defended during the First World War by the Gold Coast regiment of the West African Frontier Force. map

Gorlice Town in western Galicia. Austro-German forces under Mackensen launched a successful offensive against the Russian army between Gorlice and the nearby town of Tarnow on 2 May 1915. map

Gotha German bomber plane, first used in air raids on England in May 1917.

Grand Duke Nicholas Supreme commander of the Russian army until August 1915, when he was sacked and replaced by his nephew, Tsar Nicholas II.

Graves, Robert (1895-1985) English poet and novelist. Served on the Western Front during the First World War, an experience that formed the basis for his famous autobiographical work Goodbye to All That (1929).

Great Powers Term used to describe states with exceptional political, military and economic power. In early 20th-century Europe, it was usually applied to Austria-Hungary, Britain, France, Germany, Ottoman Turkey and Russia.

Grey, Sir Edward (1862-1933) Longest-serving British foreign secretary, a post he held from December 1905 until December 1916, when the new prime minister Lloyd George replaced him with the Conservative Arthur Balfour.

Guards The infantry regiments of the sovereign's bodyguard - consisting of the Grenadier, Coldstream, Scots, Irish and Welsh Guards.

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