in SW Iran, on an island in Shatt-al-Arab delta. The successes of
Anglo-Indian forces in the early stages of the Mesopotamia campaign
in the autumn of 1914 ensured that Abadan's valuable oil resources
remained under British control.
Addison, Christopher (1869-1951) Minister of munitions, 1916-17; minister of reconstruction,
near the River Somme in NE France. Captured by advancing German
forces during the Ludendorff offensive in April 1918; recaptured
during the Allied counter-offensive (21-23 August 1918).
All Quiet on the Western Front One of the most famous novels about the First World War,
by Erich Maria Remarque.
Allen, Clifford (1889-1939) Pacifist, journalist and Independent Labour Party (ILP)
activist; president of the No-Conscription Fellowship.
Amara Town on
the River Tigris in Mesopotamia. Surrendered to advancing British
forces by a Turkish garrison in June 1915.
Expeditionary Force American military force, commanded by
General John Pershing, that was sent to fight in Europe after the
USA declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917.
in NE France. Scene of one of the most important battles of the
First World War (8-11 August 1918), in which a combined Allied air,
cavalry, infantry and tank attack inflicted a heavy defeat on the
Amritsar City in NW Punjab and centre of Sikh religion. Scene of the shooting
by British troops of 379 unarmed pro-independence protestors at
a political meeting on 11 April 1919.
Anatolia Asian part of Turkey, occupying the peninsula between the Black
Sea, the Mediterranean and the Aegean; known historically as Asia
Angell, Sir Norman (1873-1967) Economist and pacifist; earned pre-war fame for The
Great Illusion (1910); founder member of the Union of Democratic
Control (UDC) in August 1914.
Archangel Port in NW Russia, on the Dvina river; Russian name: Arkhangelsk.
Served as a base for Allied operations in northern Russia (1918-19).
Christian civilisation in Transcaucasia; divided between the Ottoman
and Russian empires in 1914. The Armenian population in Ottoman
Turkey was subject to mass killings and deportations by the Turkish
government between 1915 and 1918, in which at least one million
people were killed. Armenia took up arms against Turkey, and Russian
Armenia declared itself independent on 28 May 1918. In the autumn
of 1920, however, Turkish and Bolshevik forces over-ran the region
and signed the Treaty of Moscow (March 1921), which ended dreams
of an independent Armenian state until the collapse of the Soviet
empire in 1991.
Refugees (Lord Mayor's) Fund British charitable organisation,
set up in 1915 to provide financial support to victims of the Armenian
massacres in Ottoman Turkey.
Arras Town in
NE France. Scene of successful, if bloody, British offensive against
the Germans (9 April-15 May 1917), which incorporated the capture
of Vimy Ridge by the Canadian Corps on 9 April.
Henry (1852-1928) Prime minister in the Liberal government,
1908-15. War secretary, March-August 1914. Prime minister in the
wartime coalition government from May 1915 until December 1916,
when he was ousted from power by David Lloyd George. Defeated at
East Fife in the December 1918 election.
Attestation Part of the enlistment procedure. Recruits had to answer questions
about their personal background, declare any previous military service,
and swear an oath of allegiance before an attesting officer or a
Aylmer, General Fenton (1862-1935) Commander of the British force sent to relieve Kut-al-Amara
in January 1916; replaced after defeat at the hands of the Turks
at Dujaila on 7 March.