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Abadan Port in SW Iran, on an island in Shatt-al-Arab delta. The successes of Anglo-Indian forces in the early stages of the Mesopotamia campaign in the autumn of 1914 ensured that Abadan's valuable oil resources remained under British control. map

Addison, Christopher (1869-1951) Minister of munitions, 1916-17; minister of reconstruction, 1917-19.

Albert Town near the River Somme in NE France. Captured by advancing German forces during the Ludendorff offensive in April 1918; recaptured during the Allied counter-offensive (21-23 August 1918). map

All Quiet on the Western Front   One of the most famous novels about the First World War, by Erich Maria Remarque.

Allen, Clifford (1889-1939) Pacifist, journalist and Independent Labour Party (ILP) activist; president of the No-Conscription Fellowship.

Amara Town on the River Tigris in Mesopotamia. Surrendered to advancing British forces by a Turkish garrison in June 1915. map

American Expeditionary Force American military force, commanded by General John Pershing, that was sent to fight in Europe after the USA declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917.

Amiens Town in NE France. Scene of one of the most important battles of the First World War (8-11 August 1918), in which a combined Allied air, cavalry, infantry and tank attack inflicted a heavy defeat on the German army. map

Amritsar City in NW Punjab and centre of Sikh religion. Scene of the shooting by British troops of 379 unarmed pro-independence protestors at a political meeting on 11 April 1919.

Anatolia Asian part of Turkey, occupying the peninsula between the Black Sea, the Mediterranean and the Aegean; known historically as Asia Minor. map

Angell, Sir Norman (1873-1967) Economist and pacifist; earned pre-war fame for The Great Illusion (1910); founder member of the Union of Democratic Control (UDC) in August 1914.

Archangel Port in NW Russia, on the Dvina river; Russian name: Arkhangelsk. Served as a base for Allied operations in northern Russia (1918-19).

Armenia Ancient Christian civilisation in Transcaucasia; divided between the Ottoman and Russian empires in 1914. The Armenian population in Ottoman Turkey was subject to mass killings and deportations by the Turkish government between 1915 and 1918, in which at least one million people were killed. Armenia took up arms against Turkey, and Russian Armenia declared itself independent on 28 May 1918. In the autumn of 1920, however, Turkish and Bolshevik forces over-ran the region and signed the Treaty of Moscow (March 1921), which ended dreams of an independent Armenian state until the collapse of the Soviet empire in 1991. map

Armenian Refugees (Lord Mayor's) Fund British charitable organisation, set up in 1915 to provide financial support to victims of the Armenian massacres in Ottoman Turkey.

Arras Town in NE France. Scene of successful, if bloody, British offensive against the Germans (9 April-15 May 1917), which incorporated the capture of Vimy Ridge by the Canadian Corps on 9 April. map

Asquith, Herbert Henry (1852-1928) Prime minister in the Liberal government, 1908-15. War secretary, March-August 1914. Prime minister in the wartime coalition government from May 1915 until December 1916, when he was ousted from power by David Lloyd George. Defeated at East Fife in the December 1918 election.

Attestation Part of the enlistment procedure. Recruits had to answer questions about their personal background, declare any previous military service, and swear an oath of allegiance before an attesting officer or a magistrate.

Aylmer, General Fenton (1862-1935) Commander of the British force sent to relieve Kut-al-Amara in January 1916; replaced after defeat at the hands of the Turks at Dujaila on 7 March.

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