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Lesson 12: Infinitives; accusative and infinitive clause - part 2 | 1 2 3

Passive infinitives

In Latin there are also three infinitive forms in the passiveView the definition of this term - this link opens in a new window voice.

(1) Present passive

To form the present passive infinitive of a verb of the first, second or fourth conjugation, remove the ‘-e’ ending from the present infinitive and add ‘-i’.

For example:

voco, vocare, vocavi, vocatum (1) to call
vocari to be called

To form the present passive infinitive of a verb of the third conjugation, remove the ‘-ere’ ending from the present infinitive and add ‘-i’.

For example:

dico, dicere, dixi, dictum (3) to say
dici to be said

Thus:

Verb Present passive infinitive
Latin Latin English
clamo, clamare, clamavi, clamatum (1) clamari to be claimed
habeo, habere, habui, habitum (2) haberi to be had
mitto, mittere, misi, missum (3) mitti to be sent
servio, servire, servivi, servitum (4) serviri to be served

(2) Perfect passive

To form the perfect passive infinitive of a verb, remove the ‘-m’ of the supine, add ‘-s’ to get the past participle and then add ‘esse’.

For example:

Verb Perfect passive infinitive
Latin Latin English
clamo, clamare, clamavi, clamatum (1) clamatus esse to have been claimed
habeo, habere, habui, habitum (2) habitus esse to have been had
mitto, mittere, misi, missum (3) missus esse to have been sent
servio, servire, servivi, servitum (4) servitus esse to have been served

(3) Future passive

To form the future passive infinitive of a verb, remove the ‘-m’ of the supine and add ‘-s’ to get the past participle and then add ‘fore’.

Handy hint

If you have studied Classical Latin before, you will notice that instead of the supine + ‘iri’, Medieval Latin uses the past participle + ‘fore’ to form the future passive infinitive.

For example:

Verb Future passive infinitive
Latin Latin English
clamo, clamare, clamavi, clamatum (1) clamatus fore to be about to be claimed
habeo, habere, habui, habitum (2) habitus fore to be about to be had
mitto, mittere, misi, missum (3) missus fore to be about to be sent
servio, servire, servivi, servitum (4) servitus fore to be about to be served

Remember

The past participle acts like an adjective, agreeing with the subject of the verb, and declines like ‘bonus, -a, -um’View this term in the Grammar table - this link opens in a new window.

Deponent infinitives

The infinitives of deponent verbsView the definition of this term - this link opens in a new window follow the rules for passive infinitives, as demonstrated above.

Checklist

Are you confident with:

  • The meaning of a passive infinitive?
  • The form of a passive infinitive?
Go to part 3
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