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Lesson 3: Future simple tense - part 1 | 1 2

So far we have looked at verbsView the definition of this term - this link opens in a new window in the present tenseView the definition of this term - this link opens in a new window and verbs in the past tensesView the definition of this term - this link opens in a new window.

In order to talk about events that we expect to take place in the future we use the future simple tense. In English, we use ‘will’ to make this tense.

For example:

Future tense
Ego Lucie messuagium dabo
I will give a messuage to Lucy

In Latin, just as with the present and past tenses, we need to know the conjugationView the definition of this term - this link opens in a new window a verb belongs to in order to make a future tense.

Remember

Latin verbs are divided into four groups, or conjugations.

In each conjugation, the verbs share the same endings:
An example of a first conjugation verb is: confirmo, confirmare, confirmavi, confirmatum (1) - to confirm.
An example of a second conjugation verb is: habeo, habere, habui, habitum (2) - to have
An example of a third conjugation verb is: duco, ducere, duxi, ductum (3) - to lead
An example of a fourth conjugation verb is: audio, audire, audivi, auditum (4) - to hear

First and second conjugation verbs

In the future simple tense, the endings for first and second conjugation verbs are the same as those in the present.

Latin English  
-o I (first person singular)
-s you (second person singular)
-t he/she/it (third person singular)
-mus we (first person plural)
-tis you (second person plural)
-nt they (third person plural)

The difference is that they are preceded by ‘b-’ in the first person singular, ‘bu-’ in the third person plural and ‘bi-’ for the remaining persons.

-bo I
-bis you (singular)
-bit he/she/it
-bimus we
-bitis you (plural)
-bunt they

To form the future tense for first and second conjugation verbs, remove ‘-re’ from the end of the infinitiveView the definition of this term - this link opens in a new window form of the verb to get the stemView the definition of this term - this link opens in a new window and then add the relevant ending above.

For example:

The stem for do, dare, dedi, datum (1) is da-

Latin English
dabo I will give
dabis you will give
dabit he/she/it will give
dabimus we will give
dabitis you will give
dabunt they will give

Third and fourth conjugation verbs

In the future simple tense, the endings for third and fourth conjugation verbs are the same as those in the present. The difference is that they are preceded by ‘e-’.

Exception

The first person singular uses ‘a-’ instead of ‘e-’, and the present tense ending of ‘-o’ changes to ‘-m’.

Latin English
-am I
-es you (singular)
-et he/she/it
-emus we
-etis you (plural)
-ent they

To form the future tense for third conjugation verbs remove the ‘-ere’ from the infinitive form of the verb to get the stem and add the relevant ending.

For example:

The stem for concedo, concedere, concessi, concessum (3) is conced-

Latin English
concedam I will grant
concedes you will grant
concedet he/she/it will grant
concedemus we will grant
concedetis you will grant
concedent they will grant

To form the future tense for fourth conjugation verbs remove the ‘-re’ from the infinitive form of the verb to get the stem and add the relevant ending.

For example:

The stem for venio, venire, veni, ventum (4) is veni-

Latin English
veniam I will come
venies you will come
veniet he/she/it will come
veniemus we will come
venietis you will come
venient they will come

Checklist

Are you confident with:

  • The meaning of a future simple tense?
  • The form of a future simple tense?
Go to part 2
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