The interactive parts of this resource no longer work, but it has been archived so you can continue using the rest of it.

Leaders & Controversies the national archives
Home > King & civil rights > Birmingham > Source 2  
source two
Evidence of what happened at protests in 1963 in Birmingham, Alabama
(2a: Empics, 2458335; 2b-d: H. Huntley and D. Montgomery, eds, ‘Black Workers' Struggle for Equality in Birmingham’, Champaign, University of Illinois Press, 2004, pp. 89-90, 168, a product of the Birmingham Civil Rights Institute Oral History Project)
Empics; photo of police and protesters, Birmingham, Alabama, 1963 Huntley & Montgomery, eds; oral history of George Price Huntley & Montgomery, eds; oral history of James Greene Huntley & Montgomery, eds; oral history of James Greene
2a 2b 2c 2d          
Huntley & Montgomery, eds; oral history of James Greene


  1. What do you think was happening when the photograph in source 2a was taken?

  2. How and why might images like this have gained support for the civil rights movement?

  3. President Kennedy said at the time that news cameras were far more effective in reporting what was going in Birmingham than any amount of words. What do you think he meant?

  4. According to George Price in source 2b, how did the fire and police departments control the demonstrators?

  5. What were the effects of these methods on the civil rights movement in Birmingham?

  6. According to James Greene in sources 2c-d, how did he and others demonstrate against segregated lunch counters in Birmingham?

  7. How did people react to his demonstration?

  8. What evidence does sources 2b-d provide about the courage shown by those fighting for civil rights?