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The National Archives Civil War
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Why did people want the king back in 1646?

Case study 1: Effects of war 1642-45 - Source 6


A map showing the defences of London in 1643

(William Maitland, ‘The History of London from its foundation by the Romans to the present Time’, 1739)

[Extra explanations are in square brackets.]

A PLAN of the City and Suburbs of LONDON as fortified by Order of PARLIAMENT in the Years 1642 & 1643.
AN EXPLANATION of the several FORTS on the Line of Communication.

  1. A Bulwark & half on the Hill at the North-end of Gravel-Lane.
  2. A Hornwork near the Windmill in White-chappel Road.
  3. A Redoubt with 2 Flanks, near Brick-Lane.
  4. A Redoubt with 4 Flanks, in Hackney Road, Shoreditch.
  5. A Redoubt with 4 Flanks, in Kingsland Road, Shoreditch.
  6. A Battery & Breastwork, at Mountmill.
  7. A Battery & Breastwork, at St. John's Street end.
  8. A Small Redoubt, near Islington Pound.
  9. A Large Fort with four Half Bulwarks, at the New-River Upper Pond.
  10. A Battery & Breastwork, on the Hill East of Blackmary's hole.
  11. Two Batteries & a Breastwork, at Southhampton, now Bedford-House.
  12. A Redoubt with 2 Flanks, near St. Giles's Pound.
  13. A Small Fort, at the East-end of Tilburn Road.
  14. A Large Fort with four Half Bulwarks, across the Road at Wardour Street.
  15. A Small Bulwark, at the Place now call'd Oliver's Mount.
  16. A Large Fort with four Bulwarks, at Hide Park corner.
  17. A Small Redoubt and Battery, on Constitution Hill.
  18. A Court of Guard at Chelfey Turnpike.
  19. A Battery & Breastwork in Tothill Fields.
  20. A Quadrant Fort with 4 Half Bulwarks, at Vaux-hall.
  21. A Fort with 4 Half Bulwarks, at the Dogg and Duck in St. George's Fields.
  22. A Large Fort with 4 Bulwarks, near the end of Blackman Street.
  23. A Redoubt with 4 Flanks near the Lock Hospital in Kent Street.

[ 'Fortified' meant that Parliament strengthened and secured the city with fortifications. A fortification is a structure built for defence.

Bulwarks and redoubts were types of fortifications - basically small forts.

Hornwork was another type of fortification, usually built near a larger fort or building to create another layer of defence.

Flanks were the sides.

A battery was a strong position that held one or more cannons.

Breastwork meant steep mounds of earth or stone with fences to stop attacking forces.

A quadrant is an area shaped like one quarter of a circle but, with 4 bulwarks facing outwards as well, the quadrant fort at Vauxhall was really more like a star in shape.]