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Guide reference: Legal Records 37
Last updated: 15 December 2010

1. Why use this guide?

This guide provides advice on nonconformist records held at The National Archives, with information on how and where you can find these records, whether searching online or on site at our building in Kew. The guide may be useful if you are tracing ancestors who did not belong to the Church of England, particularly between the late 17th and early 19th centuries. It highlights records and other useful resources you should consult for details of births, marriages or deaths recorded outside of the Church of England as well as advice on various other kinds of records that uncover details of nonconformists. More in-depth detail on Catholics can be found in the Catholics in-depth research guide.

2. Who were nonconformists and what are nonconformist records?

Nonconformists were people who did not belong to the established church. In England, up until 1533, this meant the Catholic Church, but that then changed when in 1559 the Act of Uniformity made the Church of England the established church. Thus from 1559, the starting point for this research guide, all non-Anglicans were nonconformists. Though Catholics, as well as Jews, were nonconformists, references to nonconformists in this guide are to the non-Anglican Protestant denominations, most prominently Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians and Quakers.

Nonconformist records were therefore records kept by non-Anglican churches or other congregations that recorded details of people who did not belong to the Church of England. Although nonconformist records are, by definition, non-parochial records it should not be assumed that all non-parochial records are necessarily records of nonconformists. Non-parochial records, of which there are a considerable number in the RG collections highlighted below, were registers kept outside of the local parish church but these were not necessarily records of non-Anglicans. Some Church of England records existed outside of the usual parish structure, such as those maintained by Greenwich Hospital.

3. Nonconformist birth, marriage and death registers 1567-1970

Large numbers of nonconformist registers were collected by the General Register Office in 1837, when civil registration began, and again in 1857. Many of these are now kept at The National Archives and are filed under catalogue series codes RG 4, RG 5, RG 6, and RG 8, all available to view on the BMD Registers website. For more on how these records can be searched, see '3.1 Searching the registers' below.

Birth and baptism registers are most numerous amongst these collections. Though there are a number of burial registers amongst them, in RG 4, RG 6 and RG 8, before the 1850s the vast majority of burials were recorded in the parish registers of the Church of England and so do not appear in these series. There were very few marriage registers amongst these collections since between 1754 and 1837 only Church of England marriages had been legal. However, Quakers were exempt from this law and RG 6 contains exclusively Quaker records.

Though they cover predominantly the 18th and early 19th centuries, these records date back as far as 1567 and right up to 1970. They are registers of various Protestant denominations, though there are some Catholic records included too. Principal amongst them are the Protestant Dissenters' Registry of Births from Dr Williams' Library (covering 1716-1837) and the Wesleyan Methodist Metropolitan Registry (covering 1773-1838) which recorded births only and served Wesleyan Methodists throughout England, Wales and elsewhere.

3.1 Searching the registers

To search the registers by the name of an individual go to the BMD Registers website, where you can also search by other criteria, using the 'Advanced Search' option. Alternatively, search in Discovery, our own catalogue. Series RG 4, RG 6, and RG 8 are all searchable by place and date, whilst RG 4 and RG 8 are also searchable by denomination. You can therefore narrow your search of these records by entering a county, town, city, the name of a chapel or a religious denomination as a keyword, ensuring that at least one of the series codes mentioned above is entered alongside it, with each search term separated by AND. Thus, a search in RG 4 for Baptist records in Yorkshire should be entered as 'Yorkshire AND Baptist AND RG 4'. To search by denomination, the terms most likely to return matches are Baptist, Presbyterian, Unitarian, Wesleyan, Congregational, Moravian, Methodist and Independent (and for registers beyond Protestant nonconformist denominations, Catholic and New Jerusalemite).

4. Fleet Registers: clandestine marriages and baptisms in London 1667-1754

An irregular or clandestine marriage was a marriage conducted by an ordained clergyman, but without banns or licence. Although they breached canon law, these marriages might still be legally valid, and could be recognised as such in English Common Law. The marriages were normally performed outside the home parishes of the bride and groom, and originally took place in prison chapels, though they were not necessarily disreputable in any way. Clandestine venues and ceremonies allowed the couple to avoid the trouble and expense of an ecclesiastical licence and afforded them some degree of privacy.

The most notorious of these venues was an area in the vicinity of the Fleet prison in London known as the Liberty of the Fleet and the registers are collectively referred to as the Fleet Registers, though many were maintained by individuals and at locations beyond the Fleet prison and its surrounds. The Fleet Registers record more than 200,000 marriages (and some baptisms) performed in the Liberty of the Fleet but also at the King's Bench prison, the May Fair Chapel and the Mint, between 1667 and 1754, the year in which Lord Hardwicke's Marriage Act came into force, making it a legal requirement to be married in the Church of England, though Quakers were exempt from this law. It has been estimated that in the 1740s, nearly 15% of all marriages in England were celebrated in the Fleet. Most of the parties, not surprisingly, came from London and neighbouring counties.

Because of their irregular nature, the registers and notebooks in the Fleet Registers series need to be used with care. The information in them is not always reliable, with some duplicated entries and others that are known to be forged. For more detail on their background, and how to use them, you may like to consult the books listed below (see Further reading), copies of which are available in the National Archives on-site library and in the reading rooms.

4.1 Record series containing Fleet Registers

The Fleet Registers are found in record series RG 7 and take the form of registers and notebooks. The information in them is not always reliable, with some duplicated entries and others that are known to be forged. The series should therefore be consulted with care.

Description of records Record series codes Online access
 Clandestine marriages and baptisms in the Fleet Prison, King's Bench Prison, the Mint and the May Fair Chapel  RG 7  BMD Registers
FamilySearch (some indexes only)
 Registers  RG 7/1 to RG 7/273  BMD Registers
 Notebooks  RG 7/291 to RG 7/835  BMD Registers
 Two registers submitted as evidence to the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, 1726 and 1735  PROB 18/50  Not available online - visit The National Archives at Kew to view the original documents.

4.2 Indexes to the Fleet Registers and other resources unavailable online

Below are details of indexes to the Fleet Registers viewable at The National Archives in Kew but unavailable online. These indexes provide the RG 7 reference codes which can then be used to view the record using the 'Advanced Search' option on BMD Registers.

Description of index Location and notes
 Clandestine Marriages in the Chapel and Rules of the Fleet Prison. There are 3 volumes but they cover very few registers.  Copies available in the reading rooms of The National Archives at Kew.
 Brides and grooms from Hertfordshire.  Copies available in the reading rooms of The National Archives at Kew.
 Brides and grooms whose parish of origin was in Kent, Sussex or Surrey.  Available in the reading rooms of The National Archives at Kew.
 Index of marriages alleged to have taken place at the Fleet Prison based on claims made in the poor law settlement examinations at St Martin-in-the-Fields in London.  Available in the reading rooms of The National Archives at Kew. There is no guarantee that these marriages will be found in the RG 7 registers, since the index is not taken from the registers themselves.

5. Other records with details of nonconformists

Nonconformists appear in records beyond birth, marriage and death registers and there are several records series at The National Archives worth consulting when investigating nonconformist histories. In the late 16th and 17th centuries in particular, non-Anglicans were regarded with much mistrust and suspicion and this is reflected in the kinds of records in which they appear during this period. After 1581, recusancy (refusal to attend the Church of England) became an indictable offence and fines levied against recusants were recorded at the Exchequer. Not all nonconformists were necessarily recusants and those that were prepared to sign oaths of allegiance to the crown can sometimes be found in oath or affirmation rolls. The Toleration Act of 1689 made life for nonconformists a little easier and allowed them to practice their faith more openly but they were required to take out licences to register their meeting locations and records of these licenses provide another source for nonconformist histories.

Description of record Series reference codes How to search this series
Recusant Rolls 1592-1691  E 376, E 377 Online and by date only
Oath or Affirmation Rolls:
London and Hampshire dissenters 1696
Quakers in Colchester 1696
Nonconformist ministers in Cumberland 1696
Baptist ministers in London
Quaker attorneys 1831-1835
Quaker attorneys 1836-1842
 
C 214/9, C 214/10
C 213/473
C 213/60, C 213/61
C 213/170A
E 3/5
CP 10/21
 
n/a - order the original documents
n/a - order the original documents
n/a - order the original documents
n/a - order the original documents
n/a - order the original documents
n/a - order the original documents
Deeds for the establishment of nonconformist institutions contained within Close Rolls:
1736-1902:





1902-2003



C 54





J 18



Use the trust deed indexes in the reading rooms at The National Archives at Kew. For guidance and information on these indexes see the Land conveyances research guide.

Online and by date only

6. Nonconformist records and resources in other archives

Most post-1837 nonconformist registers are kept in local record offices and many can be tracked down using the county volumes of the National Index of Parish Registers (see table below). Some nonconformist chapels did have their own burial grounds and many nonconformist burial registers are still kept at the burial grounds themselves. For a catalogue of chapel archives go to the National Register of Archives, which can be searched by chapel name or geographic location. Also useful is Access to Archives, another database of record repositories, searchable online by keyword.

Description of records or resource Location and access
 Registers of baptisms 1740-1754 and marriages 1735-1754 at the May Fair Chapel (also referred to as St George's Chapel, Mayfair).  The original registers are held at the City of Westminster Archives Centre. Transcripts have been published in Publications of the Harleian Society, Volume XV, 1889.
They are published online at Ancestry UK.
 A single Fleet Register from 1725-1731.  Within the Rawlinson Manuscripts, held at the Bodleian Library.
 National Index of Parish Registers.
Contains a listing of the location and coverage of all parish registers organized by county, covering nonconformist as well as Anglican and Roman Catholic registers.
 Copies of these publications are available in the reading rooms at The National Archives at Kew.

7. Further reading

T Benton, Irregular Marriages in London before 1754 (Society of Genealogists, 2000)

G R Breed, My Ancestors were Baptists (Society of Genealogists, 2007)

D Clifford, My Ancestors were Congregationalists (Society of Genealogists, 1997)

M Herber, Clandestine Marriages in the Chapel and Rules of the Fleet Prison (3 volumes) (Francis Boutle, 1998-2001)

W Leary and M Gandy, My ancestors were Methodists (Society of Genealogists, 1982)

E H Milligan and M J Thomas, My ancestors were Quakers (Society of Genealogists, 1999)

P J Oates, My ancestors were Inghamites (Society of Genealogists, 2003)

A Ruston, My ancestors were English Presbyterians/Unitarians (Society of Genealogists, 2001)

D J Steel, National index of parish registers Vol 1: Sources of births, marriages and deaths before 1837 (Society of Genealogists, 1968)
 
R Wiggins, My ancestors were in the Salvation Army (Society of Genealogists, 1997)

See also:

County volumes of the National index of parish registers (Society of Genealogists)

Guide reference: Legal Records 37

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