Transcript

'The Employment of Women on Munitions of War'
Catalogue reference: MUN 4/3646 (Feb 1916)


SECTION 1]
SHELL BODIES
9
WOMEN ON 18 - PDR. AND 4.5 H.E. SHELLS
ENGINE LATHE OPERATIONS
     The operations of rough turning and finishing the profile together with the boring of the cavity have now been carried out by women in all parts of the country and with complete success. The number of wasters produced has been materially reduced by sub-dividing each complicated operation into a number of simple ones. Further, the addition of stops which prevent the tool turning below a certain size and also automatic cut-off devices on boring lathes have still further decreased the chance of spoiled work. In the roughing operations the women have proved to be capable of operating not only one lathe, but two. It has been found that, owing to several minutes being occupied whilst the tool is traversing across the face of the shell, it is easily possible to remove the finished blank from the other lathe and replace it by another, ready for machining, without any loss of output due to this duplication of work.
     It is not suggested that women be asked to operate two machines as a general rule. The sole object of this and the foregoing example is to show that, if one woman can continuously operate two machines, the handling of one machine is, without doubt, a perfectly simple achievement.
     To the left, in the upper illustration on page 10 [top photograph here], women are operating two machines each on 18-pounder shell bodies. These particular tools are fitted with a type of tool-post which enables a spare tool to be carried, so that, in the event of one failing, the other can be quickly brought into operation without stoppage of output. The automatic stops fitted to the lathes give the women confidence that they can proceed with the work boldly without spoiling the shell.
     The lower illustration [lower photograph here] gives a general view of a shop carrying out all the operations, up to band turning, on 4.5 H.E. shells.
     In this particular factory there are three shifts per day of 24 hours, with two breaks for meals and an additional break of ten minutes in the middle of the long shift.
     Time-keeping in the factories employing women on projectile work is excellent, the record being so good as to make it difficult to express lost time as a percentage.


TEXT ON PHOTOGRAPHS:

10
SHELL BODIES
[SECTION 1
It will be noticed that one woman is working two engine lathes.
General View of 4.5 Shell Gallery.
It has been found that up to 4.5 shell, lifting appliances are unnecessary, and all the illustrations are taken from factories in which hand-lifting is employed on shells up to the size mentioned.

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