However, there was one area in particular on which
Allied strategists pinned their hopes for a fresh military breakthrough
in 1915. In February, an Anglo-French naval force sailed up the
- the strait separating European Turkey and Asia Minor - towards
the Ottoman capital of Constantinople.
In April, when the naval attack proved ineffective, Allied troops
landed on the Gallipoli
peninsula. The Gallipoli
campaign quickly turned into a military disaster. Turkish troops
fought tenaciously, and even a second landing of Allied troops in
August 1915 failed to breach their defences.
By January 1916, the Allies had pulled out of Gallipoli. More than
100,000 men from all sides - including an estimated 66,000 Turks,
28,000 Britons, 10,000 French, 10,000 Australians and New Zealanders
and 1,500 Indians - had been killed in less than nine months of