Industrial city in South western Germany, on the River Saar; capital
city of the region of Saarland.
Valuable industrial region of South western Germany; Saarbrücken is its
capital city. Controlled by the League of Nations from 1919 until
1935, when it voted to return to German administration.
Saint Germain, Treaty of Allied peace treaty with Austria, signed on 10 September 1919.
Saint Mihiel salient
Area south of Verdun held by the Germans for most of the war. Eventually
taken by the Americans during the 1918 Allied counter offensive.
Salonika Greek port and centrepiece of the Allies' Balkans strategy during
the First World War. Anglo-French forces landed there in October
1915, ostensibly to offer support to the retreating Serbia army.
The Salonika Front was widely regarded as a military sideshow in
both Britain and Germany and only became important in the last few
weeks of the war, when Allied forces defeated the Bulgarian troops
in the region, triggering the beginning of the Central Powers' collapse.
Territory in the Russian Caucasus. Scene of a crushing defeat of
the Turkish army by Russian forces (29 December 1914-3 January 1915).
Sassoon, Siegfried (1886-1967) British war poet and novelist. Served in France and
Palestine, 1915-18. Commissioned in the Royal Welsh Fusiliers, May
1915; awarded the Military Cross for gallantry in action, June 1916;
met fellow poet Wilfred Owen while in hospital in Edinburgh in July
1917. His semi-autobiographical account of the war - The Complete
Memoirs of George Sherston - was published in 1937.
Sazonov, Serge (1860-1927) Russian foreign minister during the July crisis. Advocated
strong support for Serbia and the general mobilisation of the Russian
army ordered by Tsar Nicholas II on 30 July 1914.
Scheer, Reinhard (1863-1928) Appointed commander-in-chief of the German High Seas
Fleet on 24 January 1916. Led the German action at the Battle of
Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916) and oversaw the scuttling of the defeated
German fleet at Scapa Flow on 21 June 1919.
Schlieffen Plan Military strategy devised by the retired German army general Alfred
von Schlieffen (1833-1913) between 1905 and 1912, according to which
Germany was to avoid a 'two-front war' by first defeating France
in the West and then turning its attention to Russia in the East.
The plan formed the basis of German war strategy in 1914, but was
frustrated by Anglo-French resistance at the Battle of the Marne
in September of that year.
Scott, Captain Robert
Falcon (1868-1912) British explorer who commanded the National
Antarctic Expedition on HMS Discovery (1901-04). Became
a national hero after dying in March 1912 during the second expedition
to the Antarctic.
Uprising against the Allies in Italian Libya by the Senussi
tribesmen, begun in November 1915 and supported by the Turks. Although
a relatively minor irritant, the Senussi revolt engaged 110,000
British, French and Italian troops in North Africa until peace terms
were agreed in April 1917.
Treaty of First Allied peace treaty with Turkey, signed
on 10 August 1920. Replaced by the Treaty of Lausanne in July 1923.
'Shell scandal' Term given to the press and Conservative Party campaign - based
on the apparent shortage of shells on the Western Front - against
Asquith's Liberal government in the spring of 1915. It resulted
in the formation of a coalition government on 25 May.
Shell shock Trauma suffered by combatants as a result of life in the trenches.
During the First World War, 'shell shock' was often dismissed by
doctors and senior officers as a form of malingering.
Desert region in NE Egypt between the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf
Sinn Fein Radical
Irish republican political movement, founded in 1905. Name is Gaelic
for 'We Ourselves'.
German name for Jutland.
on the west coast of Turkey, known today as Izmir. Part of Ottoman
Anatolia during the First World War, it was awarded to Greece in
the Treaty of Sèvres (10 August 1920). However, following
military success over the Greeks, the new republic of Turkey reclaimed
Smyrna in 1922 - a settlement that was upheld in the Treaty of Lausanne
in July 1923.
in northern France. Scene of perhaps the most infamous and bloody
campaign of the First World War: the Battle of the Somme (July-November
1916), in which 415,000 British and 650,000 German troops were killed.
Abortive Communist uprising in Berlin in January 1919,
led by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg. Put down by government
troops with the assistance of right-wing paramilitary groups known
as Freikorps, who murdered both Liebknecht and Luxemburg.
Gustav German naval intelligence officer, responsible
for pre-war and wartime German espionage in Britain.
Suffragettes Name given to the militant campaigners for women's voting rights
in the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU), founded in 1903
by Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst.
Supreme War Council
Body created in November 1917 in order to improve the
co-ordination ofthe Allied war effort.
Suvla Bay Beach on the NE side of the Gallipoli peninsula. Scene of British
landings on 6-7 August 1915.
Secret Anglo-French agreement that divided up the Middle
East into British and French spheres of influence. Negotiated between
the British diplomat Mark Sykes and his French counterpart Georges
Picot in Paris on 26 April 1916.