Region in the Middle East between the River Jordan and the Mediterranean
Sea. Part of the Ottoman empire until 1918, it became a British
mandate under the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres (10 August
Groups of men from the same local community and/or profession
who enlisted together in the British army during the First World
(1880-1958) Radical women's suffrage campaigner and daughter
of Emmeline Pankhurst, the founder of the Women's Social and
Political Union (WSPU) in 1903.
Pankhurst, Emmeline (1858-1928) Radical women's suffrage campaigner and founder
of the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) in 1903.
Paris peace conference Conference that ran from January to June 1919, attended by delegates
from 37 nations, to decide post-war settlements with each of the
defeated powers of the First World War. Most famous for producing
the punitive peace with Germany, signed on 28 June and known as
the Treaty of Versailles.
Village NE of the Belgian town of Ypres, whose name
is often used to denote the 3rd Battle of Ypres (July-November 1917).
Canadian troops seized the village on 6 November, by which time
some 250,000 Allied and probably an even higher number of German
troops had been killed.
'Peace programme' Also known as the 'Fourteen Points', this liberal and democratic
blueprint for post-war Europe was first announced by US president
Woodrow Wilson on 8 January 1918. It advocated territorial boundaries
based on principles of national self-determination, an end to secret
diplomacy, freedom of trade and a reduction of naval armaments.
of Created by the new Lloyd George coalition government in
Péronne Town in NE France on the River Somme. Captured by Germany during
the Ludendorff offensive in the spring of 1918; recaptured by Australian
troops on 31 August 1918.
John (1860-1948) Appointed to command the American Expeditionary
Force in May 1917, he aroused Allied hostility - particularly from
the French prime minister, Clemenceau - for his unbending refusal
to deploy American troops in large numbers on the Western Front
until a very late stage in the war. The first major American offensive
did not take place until the attack on the St Mihiel salient in
name (until 1935) of Iran. The unstable Persian kingdom, subject
to strong Anglo-Russian commercial rivalry before 1914, remained
neutral during the First World War but was the site of a number
of skirmishes between the Allies and the Central Powers. It was
occupied by both British and Russian forces towards the end of the
war - they eventually withdrew in, respectively, 1921 and 1925.
Piave, River River in NE Italy, rising near the border of Austria. It was the
main line of Italian defence during the First World War, towards
which Italian forces retreated after defeat at the Battle of Caporetto
(24 October-12 November 1917).
spelled 'picket'. A stand-alone guard post or small detachment of
troops placed in advance of a position to give early warning of
Raymond (1860-1934) Five-time French prime minister and president
of the French Republic, 1913-20. Appointed his former enemy Georges
Clemenceau as prime minister in 1917. Both men were conservative
nationalists, strongly opposed to a negotiated peace with Germany.
Poison gas Principal chemical weapon used by both sides during the First World
War. First used on a large scale when the Germans attacked French
and Canadian troops with chlorine gas at the 2nd Battle of Ypres
(April 1915). Increasingly lethal agents such as phosgene, hydrogen
cyanide and mustard gas were deployed at later stages in the conflict,
but their deadly effect was countered by the introduction of respirators
('gas masks') and other anti-gas measures. A total of 124,000 tons
of poison gas were dropped during the First World War, causing 1.3
million casualties but just 91,000 deaths.
Town in W Flanders, 12 miles west of Ypres.
Princip, Gavrilo (1894-1918) Bosnian-Serb terrorist. Assassinated the heir to the
Habsburg throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and his wife on 28 June
1914 in Sarajevo.
Term used to describe areas of Britain that were designated
off limits to 'enemy aliens' and other non-military personnel during
the First World War.
Interim government set up in Russia after the abdication of Tsar
Nicholas II during the March 1917 revolution. It was led from July
1917 by Alexander Kerensky and continued to support Russia's participation
in the war against the Central Powers. The Provisional Government
was overthrown in the Bolshevik coup of November 1917.
Habsburg fortress town in the province of Galicia. Captured by Russian
forces in March 1915, but promptly recaptured by Austro-German forces
in early June of the same year.