Kapp putsch Failed
right-wing coup in Berlin in March 1920, led by the nationalist
politician and co-founder (in 1917) of the German Fatherland Party,
Karl I (1887-1922)
Last Habsburg emperor; acceded to the throne after the death of
his uncle Franz Joseph on 21 November 1916; abdicated in November
1918 and fled into exile in Switzerland in March 1919.
Kemal, Mustafa (1881-1938) Most famous Turkish military commander of the First
World War, making his reputation during the Gallipoli campaign (1915-16).
Emerged after the war as the first president of the new republic
of Turkey, 1924-38.
known as British East Africa until July 1920.
Keynes, John Maynard
(1883-1946) British economist. Treasury official, 1915-19,
author of the pamphlet The Economic Consequences of the Peace
(1919), a critique of the harsh terms of the Treaty of Versailles.
African Rifles The largest force of African troops in British
Africa. First formed in 1902 and commanded by British officers;
saw action throughout the continent during the war, particularly
in East Africa.
Horatio Herbert (1850-1916) Britain's greatest military hero
at the outbreak of war in 1914. War secretary, 1914-16; drowned
on his way to a mission in Russia, June 1916.
Knox, Colonel Alfred (1870-1964) British military attaché at the headquarters
of the Imperial Russian army, 1914-17; head of the British military
mission in Siberia, 1918-19; and a fervent supporter of the leading
White Russian general Admiral Kolchak.
Alexander (1874-1920) One of the principal military leaders
of the counter-revolutionary White Russian forces during the civil
war of 1917-21. Commanded the 'Whites' in Siberia; shot by the Bolsheviks
on 7 February 1920.
Kun, Béla (1886-1939)
Drafted into the Habsburg army at the outbreak of the First World
War, he was captured and sent to a Russian POW camp in Siberia 1915.
Released after the Bolshevik revolution, he became the leader of
the Hungarian Communist Party and seized control of the new Hungarian
republic in March 1919. Faced by invasion from Czechoslovakia and
Romania, Kun resigned in August 1919 and fled to Austria and then
to the Soviet Union, where he reportedly died in a Stalinist purge
in November 1939.
people living mainly in eastern Turkey, northern Iraq and western
Iran. Despite promises of autonomy made in the Treaty of Sèvres
(August 1920), the Kurds of Eastern Anatolia remained under Turkish
on the River Tigris in Mesopotamia; occupied by British forces in
on the River Tigris in Mesopotamia; first captured from Turkey by
Anglo-Indian forces under General Townshend in September 1915. After
defeat at the Battle of Ctesiphon two months later, however, Townshend
had to retreat back to Kut, which was besieged by Turkish forces
on 7 December. After two failed relief attempts, the town was finally
surrendered in April 1916. Anglo-Indian troops under General Maude
recaptured Kut for the second time in February 1917.