Habsburg empire Multinational empire in central and eastern Europe, based on the
territories of Austria and Hungary. Collapsed at the end of the
war in November 1918; officially dissolved in the Treaty of Saint
Germain in September 1919.
Haig, Sir Douglas (1861-1928)
Commander of the 1st Army Corps of the British Expeditionary Force
in France, 1914; succeeded Sir John French as commander-in-chief
of British forces in France in December 1915, a position he held
until the end of the war - despite his uneasy relationship with
Lloyd George. Haig's reputation remains a controversial issue. Seen
by some as the 'butcher' behind the bloody Somme and Passchendaele
campaigns in 1916 and 1917, others argue that, particularly in 1918,
Haig proved himself to be an astute military leader.
Hamid, Abdul (1842-1918) Last sultan of the Ottoman empire, 1876-1909. Known
as 'The Great Assassin' for his role in sanctioning the 1894-96
Hamilton, Sir Ian (1853-1947) A close ally of the war secretary Lord Kitchener, Hamilton's
appointment as commander of the Gallipoli expedition (1915-16) ended
in failure and he was given no further command during the First
Hanna Town on
the River Tigris in Mesopotamia, south of Kut-al-Amara and Baghdad.
Scene of a failed British attempt to break through the Turkish defensive
line on 21 January 1916, during which 2,600 men were killed or wounded.
Hardy, Thomas (1840-1929) English poet and novelist.
Bight Small island in the North Sea off the coast of NW Germany.
The British Grand Fleet defeated its German counterpart here in
the first important naval clash of the First World War on 28 August
Henderson, Arthur (1863-1935) Led the majority of the Labour Party in supporting the
British declaration of war on Germany in August 1914, and subsequently
replaced Ramsay MacDonald as leader of the Parliamentary Labour
Party. President of Board of Education in Asquith's coalition government,
May 1915-December 1916; minister without portfolio in Lloyd George's
War Cabinet, December 1916-August 1917.
Line Name given by the British to the Siegfried Stellung
(Siegfried Line), after Germany's most famous First World War general,
Paul von Hindenburg. Started during the winter of 1916-17, this
line of German defensive fortifications stretched from Cerny, east
of Soissons, on the Aisne to a point near Beaurains and Neuville
Vitasse, just south of Arras.
Programme Programme of German economic mobilisation launched
on 31 August 1916 and named after General Paul von Hindenburg. It
aimed to double the supply of munitions and triple the output of
machine guns and artillery by May 1917.
The Horse Guards and Life Guards - the cavalry regiments
of the sovereign's bodyguard.
Husein, Sherif of
Mecca (1856-1931) First king of the Hejaz (Saudi Arabia),
1916-24. Encouraged by T E Lawrence, he led the Arab revolt against
Turkey that began in June 1916 and co-operated successfully with
the allies in the Middle East during the rest of the First World