The National Archives Paleography
Print page Close window
 
     
 
Glossary Alphabet Image Enlarge Transcript
 

Glossary - Document 7

Manorial survey, Manor of Beere and Pennally, Pembrokeshire.

(Catalogue reference: LR 2/206 folio 75 and folio 101)

Arable

Land used to grow crops.

Commissioners

People entrusted by the lord of the manor to make the manorial survey on his behalf.

Court baron

A type of manorial court, consisting of the assembled freehold tenants (those who paid rent but often were not subject to any other obligations) of the manor, headed by the lord or his steward. It dealt with the transfer of copyhold land, determined the customs of the manor and enforced payments due to the lord.

Top of page Top of page

Court of survey

A meeting of the manorial court called for the purpose of compiling a survey, conducted by the manorial steward or by commissioners.

Customary tenants

Tenants who held their land from the lord of the manor through the payment of rent but were also subject to various other obligations, according to the custom of the manor. These obligations normally included labour services on the lord's own land. Also known as 'copyhold tenants'.

Furze land

Open uncultivated land with gorse growing on it.

Heath land

Open uncultivated land, often covered with low growing shrubs such as heather.

Husbandry tenants

A regional variation of customary tenure, found in Pembrokeshire. A husbandry tenant held his land of the lord of the manor to himself, his heirs and assigns for ever, according to the customs of the manor and in return for the rent and services due.

Top of page Top of page

Jameston

A village in Pembrokeshire, near Manorbier.

Juror

A member of a jury.

Jury (of survey)

A number of men sworn in to swear the truth of facts known to them that the information collated regarding the holdings and customs of the manor was true. In a manorial court the jury would be sworn in from amongst the manor's tenants, and would number somewhere between 12 to more than 20.

King James

James I (James VI of Scotland) was born in Edinburgh on 19 June 1566, the son of Mary Queen of Scots and Lord Darnley. He ascended the throne of Scotland on 24 July 1567 after the forced abdication of his mother. He became king of England on 24 March 1603 after the death of Elizabeth I. With his wife Anne of Denmark he had three sons, including the future Charles I, and five daughters. The first few years of his reign included the commissioning of an authorised version of the Bible – the King James Bible in 1604 - and the Gunpowder Plot of 5 November 1605. James I died at Theobalds Park in Hertfordshire on 27 March 1625 and was buried at Westminster Abbey.

Top of page Top of page

Lady Day

Also known as the Feast of the Annunciation (the announcement by the archangel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she was to bear Jesus), Lady Day falls on 25 March. In England, Wales and Ireland it was one of the quarter days – one of four specified days of the year when certain payments were due. Until 1752 it was also the first official day of the year in England and Wales.

Letters commisionary

Documents giving the people commissioned to compile the manorial survey the authority to do so.

'Mannor de Beere' / Manorbier

A village in Pembrokeshire, South Wales, 5 miles/8 km from the county town of Pembroke.

Top of page Top of page

Manorial survey

Manorial surveys were drawn up for the landowner and provided a description of all aspects of the manor. Surveys varied in length and detail, but could include information on the boundaries of the manor, details of the extent of each property, the customs of the manor and the rental. Surveys were often made upon change of ownership of the manor, or in order to try to discover ways in which the yield of the manor could be increased. They provided for the lord of manor a written record of the obligations owed to him by tenants but also recorded the rights of the tenants themselves. Surveys were drawn up at the court of survey.

Messuage

A portion of land, generally with a house and outbuildings on it.

Michaelmas

The feast of St Michael and all the Angels, 29 September. One of the quarter days (four specified days of the year when certain payments were due) in England, Wales and Ireland.

Top of page Top of page

Office of the Auditors of Land Revenue

The department that administered crown lands in England and Wales (excluding those of the Duchy of Lancaster) from 1554 to 1832.

Parcel

A part or portion of something, for example, of land.

Pasture

Land covered with grass, used for or suitable for the grazing of livestock.

Top of page Top of page

Pembrokeshire

A southern county of Wales.

'Pennally' / Penally

A village in Pembrokeshire, South Wales.

Prince Charles

Charles I was born in Dunfermline on 19 November 1600, the son of James VI of Scotland (the future James I of England) and Anne of Denmark. Charles ascended the throne on 27 March 1625. With his wife Henrietta Maria of France he had four sons including the future Charles II and James II, and five daughters. Disputes and confrontations with Parliament over the power of the monarchy, religious disagreements and financial troubles marred Charles' reign and eventually led to civil wars, in Scotland from 1637 and then in England from 1642 to 1646 and 1648. Charles was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, after having been sentenced to death by the Parliamentary High Court of Justice. He was buried in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

Top of page Top of page

Rental

Rentals began to appear in England in the 14th century, but in Wales they are rare before the beginning of the 16th century. They are often the longest part of the manorial survey. They often include a list of the tenants' names, details of land they hold, the form of tenure by which it was held, the use to which it was put (for example, arable, pasture), the amounts of rent due each year (usually at Lady Day and Michaelmas) and the services the tenants owed the lord of the manor. The person actually occupying the property might have been a sub-tenant however, and therefore their name might not appear on the list. A rent roll was a list of rents paid rather than due.

Steward (manorial)

A man appointed by the lord of the manor to administer the financial and legal business of the manor on his behalf. The steward held the manorial court in the lord's absence and kept its records.

Tenant

A person who holds a piece of land, property etc from a landlord for a set time.

Top of page Top of page

Tenure

The conditions under which the land rented from the lord of the manor is held. There were three kinds of tenure in the manor of Manorbier and Penally: freehold and two types of customary or copyhold, i) husbandry hold, which was equivalent to copyhold of inheritance, and ii) censory hold, which was equivalent to copyhold for one lifetime.

Yard

An area of land which would vary in size according to the locality. In Pembrokeshire a yard of land might mean a virgate or four poles. A pole in this particular manor was nine foot long. A virgate varied around the country, but was most frequently 30 acres.

Top of page Top of page

 
 
Go to top of page Print page Close window