Clothing and equipment.
Armada is the Spanish word for a fleet of
ships. The Spanish Armada of 1588 was made
up of approximately 150 ships. King Philip
II of Spain intended to invade England and
bring it under Spanish rule. There were many
reasons behind this, both religious and political.
Since Philip had been married to Mary I, he
had been king of England for a few years. Under
Elizabeth, England had reverted from the Catholic
rule of Philip and Mary to Protestantism. Elizabeth
I was also encouraging unrest in the Netherlands,
which were ruled by Philip. Further provocation
was provided by her refusal to condemn the
English privateers who were attacking Spanish
ships. England was also competing with Spain
for trade and expansion in the New World or
Americas. The execution of Mary Queen of Scots
in 1587 brought matters to a head, and the
Armada set out to invade England the following
year. Unfortunately for Philip, bad storms
meant that the Spanish ships were unable to
meet up with the forces of the Duke of Parma
in the Netherlands as originally intended.
They were also blown off course after the Battle
of Gravelines. Intending to return to Spain
by sailing north around Scotland, many ships
were in fact wrecked off the coast of Ireland
and Scotland. Of the 150 ships that set out,
only 65 managed to return to Lisbon.
Strong thick rope (in a nautical context).
Capstan, a winding mechanism for weighing
anchor, hoisting heavy sails etc.
Erris St Donnell
Blacksod Bay on the coast of Erris, a district
of County Mayo in Ireland.
A statement or testimony that is taken down
in writing as evidence.
Of or belonging to Flanders. King Philip II
of Spain had inherited Flanders from his father,
Charles I, who was also the Holy Roman Emperor,
A galleass was an oared sailing ship, a cross
between a galleon and an oared galley.
The Gerona, (also known as Girona), was a
galleass in the Spanish Armada. She was forced
to undergo repairs in the port of Killibegs
in Donegal, Ireland. While in port, the Gerona
took on the crews of the Rata Santa
Maria Encoronada and the Duquesa Santa Ana.
Upon leaving Donegal, the Gerona headed for
Scotland but, on 30 October 1588, she was wrecked
off Lacada Point near the Giant's Causeway,
County Antrim, Ireland.
Gran Bello, Don Thomaso de
Don Tomaso de Granvelle.
A large ship of burden or transport.
Impressment or press–ganging. Enforced service
in either the army or navy.
Leva, Don Alonso de
Don Alonso Martinez de Leiva de Rioja, Knight
of Santiago and commander-designate of the
Loughros Mor Bay, Donegal.
Lord Deputy of Ireland
The English monarch's representative and head
of his/her administration in Ireland.
Sir William Fitzwilliam, who was born at Milton
in Northamptonshire in 1526, held this post
during the attempted invasion by the Spanish
Armada. His appointments in Ireland commenced
in 1555 when Mary I appointed him temporary
Keeper of the Great Seal of Ireland. In 1575
Fitzwilliam resigned as Lord Deputy and returned
to England owing to ill health. As the governor
of Fotheringay Castle during the incarceration
and subsequent execution of Mary Queen of Scots,
he was said to have shown great respect and
kindness to his prisoner. In 1588 Fitzwilliam
was reappointed Lord Deputy of Ireland. Almost
immediately, he had to deal with the issue
of apprehending Spanish stragglers from the
Armada both on land and off the shores of Ireland.
Capital of Portugal.
In 1580 Portugal was united with the other
Spanish kingdoms by King Philip II. It continued
under the rule of the Spanish crown until 1640.
The Spanish kingdoms were known collectively
as Spain but were not actually a unified state
at this time.
'Mc Swine ny Does Countrie'/McSweeney
McSweeney ne Doe (gaelic - Mac Suibhne na
d'Tuath) was an underchief of the Earl of Tirconnel.
The area is now Donegal, Ireland.
The English Channel.
Military supplies, large guns, cannons etc.
Paris, Counte de
The Count de Paredes.
A ship called La Rata Santa Maria Encoronada.
A style of handwriting
which developed in England in the 16th century.
It was used for business purposes. It is a
cursive style (from the Latin 'currere' - to
run) so called because it was written at speed
and 'runs' across the page. The pen does not
leave the page between letters. The use of
secretary hand had begun to wane by the mid-17th
A ship called Duquesa Santa Ana.
'...w[it]h the K[ing]...' document 3, line
Philip II, King of Spain 1556-1598, born 1527.
A county situated within the Irish Province
of Munster. There is also a town of the same
Food and provisions.
Walsingham, Sir Francis
1530[?]-1590. A zealous Protestant, he lived
abroad during the reign of the Catholic Queen
Mary I. Walsingham's knowledge of foreign affairs,
combined with his many overseas acquaintances,
led to his employment in the area of foreign
secret intelligence under Elizabeth I on his
return to England. In 1573, he was created
joint Secretary of State with Lord Treasurer
Burghley, with special responsibility for foreign
affairs. Walsingham was renowned for his capabilities
in intelligence gathering; his detection of
Babington's plot against the life of Elizabeth
I, in which Mary Queen of Scots was heavily
implicated, led to the latter's execution for
treason in 1586. With many agents in Spain,
Walsingham was aware of the Armada's preparations,
down to minute detail in some cases. He died
in 1590 and was buried in St Paul's Cathedral,