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Latin Palaeography

Lesson Two - Abbreviations

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An abbreviation mark above a vowel often indicates that the letter m or n has been left out. This occurs most frequently at the end of words.
mea[m]

Suspension
Suspension

A large loop extending below the line often appears after a consonant at the end of words in this document.  This usually indicates that the letters is should be added.
oblit[is]

Suspension
Suspension

A superscript vertical stroke above the letter p, c or t usually indicates that the letters ri have been left out.
p[ri]mis

Contraction
Contraction

The word que, on its own or where it forms part of another word, is abbreviated to q with either a horizontal line above it, or a semi-colon or ‘z’ sign appearing after it. 
q[ue]

Abbreviation
Q abbreviation

Where the letter p has an abbreviation sign or loop above it such as this, the letters re have been left out and should be added to make pre.
p[re]dict[a]

Abbreviation
P abbreviation

Where the last letter of a word is r and there appears to be an ornate loop attached to it below the line, or a mark which looks like a number 4, or a letter y, the letters um have been left out. This is most usual in nouns and adjectives in the genitive plural.
legator[um]

Suspension
Suspension

An abbreviation mark after s often indicates that the letters er have been left out.
s[er]vic[i]o

Contraction
Contraction

The word frater, fratris (m.) is often abbreviated to fr with the appropriate Latin ending added on.
fr[atru]m

Contraction
Contraction

The word ibidem is often abbreviated to ibm.
ib[ide]m

Contraction
Contraction

The word item is often abbreviated to itm.
it[e]m

Contraction
Contraction

The word ipse, ipsa, ipsum is often abbreviated by leaving out the s.
ip[s]a

Contraction
Contraction

The words presentes, -ium (f. pl.) and presens, -entis are often abbreviated by leaving out the letters rese.
p[rese]ntes

Contraction
Contraction

 

The word quod is often abbreviated to q with a superscript d, or in some cases to qd.
q[uo]d

Abbreviation
Q abbreviation

The words sanctus, a, -um is often abbreviated by leaving out the letters an and t.
s[an]c[t]i

Contraction
Contraction

The word comitatus, -us (m.) is often abbreviated to com.
com[itatu]

Suspension
Suspension

The word magister, magistri (m.) is often abbreviated by leaving out the letters ist.
mag[ist]ro

Contraction
Contraction

The word pertinentia, -e (f.) is often abbreviated  by removing the letters after the second n. It can also be abbreviated to ptin.
p[er]tinen[tiis]

Suspension
Suspension

The letters m and n can be left out of the word omnis, -e.
o[mn]i

Contraction
Contraction

The name Willelmus, -i (m.) is often abbreviated, with the letters elm or el omitted.
Will[el]mo

Contraction
Contraction