hic, hec, hoc
Hic, hec, hoc has several meanings
- ‘This’ when one of these words is an adjective – describing a noun
- ‘He, she, it’ when it’s a pronoun – standing in for a noun
hic, hec, hoc agrees with the noun it relates to.
|Nominative||hic||hec||hoc||this||he, she, it|
|Accusative||hunc||hanc||hoc||this||him, her, it|
|Genitive||huius||huius||huius||of this||his, her, its|
|Dative||huic||huic||huic||to this||to him/her/it|
|Ablative||hoc||hac||hoc||by this||by him/her/it|
|Dative||his or hiis||his or hiis||his or hiis||to these||to them|
|Ablative||his or hiis||his or hiis||his or hiis||by these||by them|
|hec est concordia||this is the agreement||concordia, -e
|confirmamus hac carta hec maneria domino||we confirm by this charter these manors to the lord.|
|lego hoc testamento has predictas septem acras terre||I bequeath by this will these aforesaid seven acres of land.||acra, -e
|hi sunt plegii Edwardi Basset||These are the pledges of Edward Basset||plegius, -i
As always, don’t try to learn all of the endings at once! First look for patterns
- Genitive singular is the same for all genders
- Dative singular is the same for all genders
- Nominative singular and accusative singular are the same for neuter
- Dative and ablative plurals are the same
Third conjugation verbs
Verbs from the third conjugation end ‘–ere’.
When the ‘-ere’ is removed, the stem is either a consonant or ‘u’.
|cognoscere||to know, get to know|
|concedere||to concede, grant, allow|
|petere||to require, seek, petition|
|reddere||to give back, pay|
To conjugate these verbs
- Remove the ‘-ere’ to find the stem
- Add these endings
Look at our example of concedere – to concede
|concedis||you concede (singular)|
|conceditis||you concede (plural)|
|regina totum manerium Westmonasterii magistro Stephano concedit||The queen concedes the whole manor of Westminster to master Stephen|
|vidue predictas terras filiabus domini non reddunt||The widows do not surrender the aforesaid lands to the daughters of the lord.|
|nos Edwardus et Johanna tres marcas domino novo solvimus||We, Edward and Joanna, pay three marks to the new lord.||Johanna, -e (f.) Joanna|
|predicta vidua reginam novam petit||the aforesaid widow petitions the new queen|
|Maria dicit quod non habet cartam||Mary says that she does not have the charter||quod, because, that (after ‘to know’,‘to say’ etc.)|
Some third conjugation verbs are called ‘io’ verbs because they have different endings
- -io for the ‘I’ form (instead of –o)
- -iunt for the ‘they’ form (instead of –unt)
You are most likely to come across facere – to make, do
|novum testamentum facio||I make a new will|
Fourth conjugation verbs; obire
Verbs from the fourth conjugation end ‘-ire’.
To conjugate these verbs, remove the ‘-ire’ and add these endings.
Look at our example of venire – to come
|venis||you come (singular)|
|venitis||you come (plural)|
|agricole ad curiam veniunt||the farmers come to the court||ad curiam, -e (f.) to the court|
|non scio||I do not know|
Handy hints – third and fourth conjugation verbs
Did you notice the similarities between the endings of regular third and fourth declension verbs? Look back at the lesson and check.
The difference is that in the fourth declension, the ‘I’ and ‘they’ forms have an ‘i’.
Noticing patterns like this makes learning Latin much easier.
Obire to die
This is an irregular verb, which although similar to a fourth conjugation verb, is a compound of ‘eo, ire, ivi, itum – to go’. It conjugates in the following way:
|obitis||you (pl) die|
Are you confident with:
- The meanings of ‘hic, hec, hoc’?
- How to decline a third conjugation verb like concedere?
- How to decline a fourth conjugation verb like venire?
- The difference between the endings of regular third and fourth conjugation verbs?