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Beginners' Latin
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Glossary Word list Grammar Table
Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Pronouns

Adjectives

 

First and second declension adjectives

Third declension adjectives


First and second declension adjectives

Most first and second declension adjectives take these endings. For example

novus, -a, -um    new

Singular
Case Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative novus nova novum
Vocative nove nova novum
Accusative novum novam novum
Genitive novi nove novi
Dative novo nove novo
Ablative novo nova novo
Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter
novi nove nova
novi nove nova
novos novas nova
novorum novarum novorum
novis novis novis
novis novis novis

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The endings are the same as those for

  • Second declension nouns ending ‘us’
  • First declension nouns
  • Second declension nouns ending ‘um’
  1. Adjectives that end ‘er’ in the masculine nominative singular.

Most lose the ‘e’ when declined.
For example

pulcher , pulchra, pulchrum       beautiful

Singular
Case Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative pulcher pulchra pulchrum
Vocative pulcher pulchra pulchrum
Accusative pulchrum pulchram pulchrum
Genitive pulchri pulchre pulchri
Dative pulchro pulchre pulchro
Ablative pulchro pulchra pulchro
Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter
pulchri pulchre pulchra
pulchri pulchre pulchra
pulchros pulchras pulchra
pulchrorum pulchrarum pulchrorum
pulchris pulchris pulchris
pulchris pulchris pulchris
  1. Some adjectives keep the ‘e’ when declined.

For example

liber , -era, -erum       free

Singular
Case Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative liber libera liberum
Vocative liber libera liberum
Accusative liberum liberam liberum
Genitive liberi libere liberi
Dative libero libere libero
Ablative libero libera libero
Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter
liberi libere libera
liberi libere libera
liberos liberas libera
liberorum liberarum liberorum
liberis liberis liberis
liberis liberis liberis

There are nine irregular adjectives that decline like novus, -a, -um but

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  • Genitive singular is ‘-ius’
  • Dative singular is ‘–i’ for all genders

unus, -a, -um     one
totus, -a, -um     all, whole
nullus, -a, -um     no, none
solus, -a, -um     alone, only
ullus, -a, -um     any
alter, altera, alterum     the other (of two things)
neuter, neutra, neutrum     neither (of two things)
uter, utra, utrum     which (of two things)
alius, alia, aliud     the other [genitive singular sometimes alterius]

For example

unus , -a, -um       one

Singular
Case Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative unus una unum
Accusative unum unam unum
Genitive unius unius unius
Dative uni uni uni
Ablative uno una uno
Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter
uni une una
unos unas una
unorum unorum unorum
unis unis unis
unis unis unis

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Third declension adjectives

These have the same endings as third declension nouns except that adjectives have

  • ‘-i’ for ablative singular
  • ‘-ium’ for genitive plural
  • ‘-ia’ for nominative, vocative and accusative neuter plural

There are two main forms

1. Masculine and feminine are same; neuter is different.
 
Masculine and Feminine
Neuter
Case
Singular
Plural
Singular
Plural
Nominative
omnis
omnes
omne
omnia
Vocative
omnis
omnes
omne
omnia
Accusative
omnem
omnes
omne
omnia
Genitive
omnis
omnium
omnis
omnium
Dative
omni
omnibus
omni
omnibus
Ablative
omni
omnibus
omni
omnibus

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communis, -e commonGlossary   legalis , -e lawful
fidelis , -e faithful   parochialis , -e parochialGlossary, parish
finalis , -e final   totalis , -e total
  1. Masculine, feminine and neuter are the same in the nominative.

ingens, ingentis      huge

In this case, the nominative form is given in the word list, followed by the genitive.

 
Masculine and Feminine
Neuter
Case
Singular
Plural
Singular
Plural
Nominative
ingens
ingentes
ingens
ingentia
Vocative
ingens
ingentes
ingens
ingentia
Accusative
ingentem
ingentes
ingens
ingentia
Genitive
ingentis
ingentium
ingentis
ingentium
Dative
ingenti
ingentibus
ingenti
ingentibus
Ablative
ingenti
ingentibus
ingenti
ingentibus

Other examples are
presens, presentis present
vetus, veteris old

 
 
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