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Beginners' Latin
Ogmore castle, Glamorganshire. June 1579. Cat ref: MPC 1/49. Copyright of the Chancellor and Council of the Duchy of Lancaster

Lesson 12: Adverbs; numbers and dates; months; useful phrases; dating clauses

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An adverbGlossary - opens in a new window describes a verb. It provides information about how the verb is carried out. Adverbs usually come before the verb. They do not decline. Concentrate on learning words marked with an asterisk* first.

You have already used some adverbs:

item likewise
non not

Here are some other common adverbs

celeriter quickly
falso falsely
libere freely*
quiete peacefully*

Did you notice that English adverbs often end in ‘-ly’? However, not all do

bene well
ibidem at/in the same place*
ideo therefore
imperpetuum forever, in perpetuity
nunc now*
prius formerly
semper always*


sicut just as*
tandem at length*
ubi where, when*
videlicet namely, to wit, that is*

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prius pater meus castrum de Ruislepe libere tenuit sed nunc castrum teneo per servicium videlicet de feodo unius militis Before my father held the castle of Ruislepe freely, but now I hold the castle by service, namely of one knight’s fee. castrum, -i
(n.) castle
sed but
feodum, -i
(n.) feeGlossary - opens in a new window
vidua dicit quod vir falso dicit et quod tenuit predictum tenementum libere et quiete a tempore regis Edwardi The widow says that the man speaks falsely and that she has held the aforesaid tenement freely and peacefully since the time of King EdwardGlossary - opens in a new window. tenementum, -i
(n.) tenement
tempus, temporis
(n.) time,
dominus Johannes rex pater domini regis qui nunc est The lord King John, father of the lord king who is now.  
in nomine dei amen lego abbati tenementa imperpetuum tenere In the name of God amen I leave to the abbot the tenements to hold in perpetuity nomen, nominis
(n.) name
amen amenGlossary - opens in a new window
Londinium, -ii
(n.) London
tandem Carolus sigillum carte nove apposuit et celeriter finem de tribus libris solvit. At length Charles affixed [his] seal to the new charter and quickly paid a fine of three pounds. Carolus, -i (m.)

hic meaning ‘here’, can also be used as an adverb. As an adverb, it does not decline.

hic iacet
here lies


Tip Tip
You will often see this phrase on tombs.
Checklist Checklist:
Are you confident with:
What an adverb does?
Where an adverb comes in a sentence? Whether it declines?


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