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Lesson 12: Infinitives; accusative and infinitive clause - part 1 | 1 2 3

An infinitive is the part of a verbView the definition of this term - this link opens in a new window which is unaffected by person or number. In English this part of a verb is easily recognised as it is preceded by 'to'.

For example:

to call

Active infinitives

In Latin there are three infinitive forms in the activeView the definition of this term - this link opens in a new window voice.

(1) Present active

In a dictionary, the presentView the definition of this term - this link opens in a new window active infinitive form of a verb is shown as the second principal partView the definition of this term - this link opens in a new window and we have come across it several times already.

voco, vocare, vocavi, vocatum (1) to call

Normally the ending for first conjugationView the definition of this term - this link opens in a new window verbs is '–are', second conjugation verbs '–ere', third conjugation verbs '–ere', and fourth conjugation verbs '–ire'.

For example:

Verb Present active infinitive
Latin Latin English
clamo, clamare, clamavi, clamatum (1) clamare to claim
habeo, habere, habui, habitum (2) habere to have
mitto, mittere, misi, missum (3) mittere to send
servio, servire, servivi, servitum (4) servire to serve

(2) Perfect active

To form the perfectView the definition of this term - this link opens in a new window active infinitive of a verb, add '-sse' to the third principal part of the verb.

For example:

Verb Perfect active infinitive
Latin Latin English
clamo, clamare, clamavi, clamatum (1) clamavisse to have claimed
habeo, habere, habui, habitum (2) habuisse to have had
mitto, mittere, misi, missum (3) misisse to have sent
servio, servire, servivi, servitum (4) servivisse to have served

Handy hint

If there is a '-v' at the end of the stemView the definition of this term - this link opens in a new window, there is sometimes an abbreviated form of the infinitive which excludes the '-vi'.

For example:

clamavisse can become clamasse
servivisse can become servisse

(3) Future active

To form the futureView the definition of this term - this link opens in a new window active infinitive of a verb, use the future participleView the definition of this term - this link opens in a new window (formed by removing the '-m' from the supineView the definition of this term - this link opens in a new window and adding '-rus') and add 'esse'.

For example:

Verb Future active infinitive
Latin Latin English
clamo, clamare, clamavi, clamatum (1) clamaturus esse to be about to claim
habeo, habere, habui, habitum (2) habiturus esse to be about to have
mitto, mittere, misi, missum (3) missurus esse to be about to send
servio, servire, servivi, servitum (4) serviturus esse to be about to serve

Remember

The future participle acts like an adjectiveView the definition of this term - this link opens in a new window, agreeing with the subjectView the definition of this term - this link opens in a new window of the verb, and declines like ‘bonus, -a, -um’View this term in the Grammar table - this link opens in a new window.

Checklist

Are you confident with:

  • The meaning of an active infinitive?
  • The form of an active infinitive?
Go to part 2
Try again