When we compare the way in which two things are carried out in English we often use the comparative form of an adverb. To do this we most commonly precede the adverb with 'more'.
To form the comparative of most Latin adverbs, we use the accusative singular neuter of the comparative adjective and so the ending is often '-ius'.
|Adjective||Comparative adjective||Adverb||Comparative adverb|
When we compare the way in which more than two things are carried out in English we often use the superlative form of an adverb. To do this we precede it with 'most'.
To form the superlative of most Latin adverbs we replace the ‘-us’ ending of the superlative adjective with '-e', so that the endings are most commonly '-issime', '-errime', '-illime' .
|Superlative adjective||Superlative adverb|
Just as with adjectives, when it comes to translating Latin comparative and superlative adverbs, be aware that they are more flexible than those in English and can be expressed in a variety of different ways.
|facilius||more easily, rather easily, too easily|
|pulchrius||more beautifully, rather beautifully, too beautifully|
|tutius||more safely, rather safely, too safely|
|facillime||most easily, very easily, in an extremely easy way|
|pulcherrime||most beautifully, very beautifully, in an extremely beautiful way|
|tutissime||most safely, very safely, in an extremely safe way|
When ‘quam’ is used with a comparative adjective or adverb, it means ‘than’.
hoc messuagium fuit maius quam illud
This messuage was larger than that one
When ‘quam’ is used with a superlative adjective or adverb, it means ‘as ...as possible ’.
|quam maximus||as great as possible|
|quam largissimus||as large as possible|
|quam maxime||as greatly as possible|
|quam largissime||as largely as possible|
If an adjective is irregular, then it is often the case that the corresponding adverb will be irregular too. Compare these to the irregular adjectives we have already looked at in this lesson.
Adverbs which are not linked to corresponding adjectives can also be irregular but you are not likely to come across these.