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Lesson 7: Participles - present, past and future - part 2 | 1 2 3 4

Past participle

Past participles decline in the following way, which is similar to a first and second declension adjectiveView this term in the Grammar table - this link opens in a new window.

  Singular Plural
  Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Femine Neuter
Nominative -us -a -um -i -e -a
Accusative -um -am -um -os -as -a
Genitive -i -e -i -orum -arum -orum
Dative -o -e -o -is -is -is
Ablative -o -a -o -is -is -is

To form the past participle, remove the ‘-um’ from the end of the supineView the definition of this term - this link opens in a new window and decline as above.

Group Supine Perfect participle English
1 amo, amare, amavi, amatum amatus, -a, -um loved
2 habeo, habere, habui, habitum habitus, -a, -um had
3 duco, ducere, duxi, ductum ductus, -a, -um led
capio, capere, cepi, captum captus, -a, -um taken
4 servio, servire, servivi, servitum servitus, -a, -um served

A perfect participle describes an action or a state which took place before the action or state of the main verb. Just like all participles, it must agree with the noun it is describing. A perfect participle can be translated in a number of ways.

For example:

puella  arrow pointing right  puella (singular, feminine, nominative)

vocatus  arrow pointing right  vocata (singular, feminine, nominative)

Therefore:

puella vocata timebat
The girl, having been called, was afraid.
Having been called, the girl was afraid.
After being called, the girl was afraid.
After she was called, the girl was afraid.
When she had been called, the girl was afraid.

Handy hint

In this instance the noun associated with the participle is in the nominative caseView the definition of this term - this link opens in a new window but it can occur in other cases.

Checklist

Are you confident with:

  • The meaning of a past participle?
  • How to form a past participle?
Go to part 3
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