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Montage of three nurses. All images © Wellcome Library, London. References: L0010490, L0018470, L0010789. Hospital Records Database
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Details: The Retreat, York

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Go to:  Name  |  Administration  |  Status/Type  |  Other info  |  Records

Name

 

Present name

The Retreat 

Address

Heslington Road York YO1 5BN (Since 1796) 

Foundation Year

c1792 

Closed

Yes 

Closure year

c1948 

Administrative authorities

Regional Hospital Board (1948-74)

Not Applicable 

Hospital Management Committee (1948-74)

Not Applicable 

Regional Health Authority (1974-82)

Not Applicable 

Regional Health Authority (1982- )

Not Applicable 

District Health Authority (1974-82)

Not Applicable 

District Health Authority (1982- )

Not Applicable 

County (before 1974)

Yorkshire 

County (1974-1996)

Not Applicable 

County (after 1996)

Not applicable 

Status

Pre 1948

Voluntary, Private

Post 1948

Private

Type

Pre 1948

Mental

Post 1948

Mental

Other information

The Retreat was founded in 1792 by William Tuke, a Quaker, to put into practice a system of 'moral treatment' for the mentally ill, based on the theory that madness arose from an inflammation of human passions, the animal side of a person's nature. The regime stressed self-discipline and work, providing a structured and routinized environment from which any stimulus to the passions had been removed. In such an ordered world patients might find it easier to regain control of their disordered minds. Tuke used physical restraint only for specific theraputic purposes. The official ethos of the British asylum movement was derived from this experiment. [Adapted from 'An Introduction to the Social History of Nursing'; Dingwall, Rafferty and Webster; Routledge 1988]. Studies of the Retreat include 'The Retreat, York: An Early Experiment in the Treatment of Mental Illness'; Glover; York 1984, and 'Madness, Morality and Medicine: A Study of the York Retreat 1796 - 1914'; Digby; Cambridge 1985. The Retreat opened in 1796, and continues today: Annexes: The Appendage, York 1810 - 1823 Gainsborough House, Scarborough 1886 - 1903 Throxerby Hall, Scarborough 1903 - 1924 Millfield House, York 1919 - 1927 Moorlands, Haxby, York 1940 - c1955

Records can be found at:

notes

  Religious Society of Friends Library (Quakers)

Record type

Date range

Administrative

-

   General

-

Finding aids

Finding aids

Location of finding aids

National Register of Archives (NRA)

Details

NRA: 37723.

notes

  York University: Borthwick Institute of Historical Research

Record type

Date range

Administrative

1792 - 1955

   General

1792 - 1955

   Finance

1793 - 1955

   Estates

1794 - 1955

   Nursing

1828 - 1939

   Admission & Discharge

1796 - 1939

   Staff

1828 - 1939

   Ephemera

1792 - 1939

   Pictorial

1900 - 1900

Clinical & Patients

1796 - 1939

Finding aids

Finding aids

Brief Guide(BG)

Location of finding aids

At Repository(AR), National Register of Archives (NRA)

Details

AR/BG Expanded list of archives in preparation 1999

 
 
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