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An industrial Nation Timeline
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1781 James Watt's rotary steam engine invented, this could be used to lower miners down a shaft or to pump water out of a mine.

1794 James Buddle's exhaust pump was invented. This could draw stale air out of a mine.

1815 Sir Humphrey Davy invented the miners' safety lamp.

1833 Factory Act, this banned children from working in textile factories under the age of nine. From nine to thirteen they were limited to nine hours a day and 48 hours a week.

1836 Registration of Births, Deaths and Marriages, this enabled factory inspectors to check the ages of children working in factories (only applicable in England and Wales).

1842 Publication of the 'First Report of the Children's Employment Commissioners: Mines and Collieries', which had been prepared by Lord Ashley (later Lord Shaftesbury).

1842 Mines Act, this banned the employment underground of boys under the age of ten and all women and girls. No one under the age of fifteen was to be in charge of machinery.


1844 Factory Act, this classed women as young persons under the age of eighteen and limited the hours of both groups to twelve on weekdays and nine on Saturdays.


1847 The Ten Hour Act, this cut the hours of women and the under-eighteens to ten a day and 58 a week.


1850 The Ten Hour Act, this set the working day for all workers at ten and a half hours.


1867 Factory Act, the legislation was extended to all workshops with more than 50 workers.

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