Why did people want the king back in 1646?
Case study 1: Effects of war 1642-45 - Source 6
A map showing the defences of London in 1643
(William Maitland, ‘The History of London from its foundation by the Romans to the present Time’, 1739)
[Extra explanations are in square brackets.]
A PLAN of the City and Suburbs of LONDON as fortified by Order of PARLIAMENT in the Years 1642
AN EXPLANATION of the several FORTS on the Line of Communication.
- A Bulwark & half on the Hill at the North-end of Gravel-Lane.
- A Hornwork near the Windmill in White-chappel Road.
- A Redoubt with 2 Flanks, near Brick-Lane.
- A Redoubt with 4 Flanks, in Hackney Road, Shoreditch.
- A Redoubt with 4 Flanks, in Kingsland Road, Shoreditch.
- A Battery & Breastwork, at Mountmill.
- A Battery & Breastwork, at St. John's Street end.
- A Small Redoubt, near Islington Pound.
- A Large Fort with four Half Bulwarks, at the New-River Upper Pond.
- A Battery & Breastwork, on the Hill East of Blackmary's hole.
- Two Batteries & a Breastwork, at Southhampton, now Bedford-House.
- A Redoubt with 2 Flanks, near St. Giles's Pound.
- A Small Fort, at the East-end of Tilburn Road.
- A Large Fort with four Half Bulwarks, across the Road at Wardour Street.
- A Small Bulwark, at the Place now call'd Oliver's Mount.
- A Large Fort with four Bulwarks, at Hide Park corner.
- A Small Redoubt and Battery, on Constitution Hill.
- A Court of Guard at Chelfey Turnpike.
- A Battery & Breastwork in Tothill Fields.
- A Quadrant Fort with 4 Half Bulwarks, at Vaux-hall.
- A Fort with 4 Half Bulwarks, at the Dogg and Duck in St. George's Fields.
- A Large Fort with 4 Bulwarks, near the end of Blackman Street.
- A Redoubt with 4 Flanks near the Lock Hospital in Kent Street.
[ 'Fortified' meant that Parliament strengthened and secured the city with fortifications. A
fortification is a structure built for defence.
Bulwarks and redoubts were types of fortifications - basically small forts.
Hornwork was another type of fortification, usually built near a larger fort or building to
create another layer of defence.
Flanks were the sides.
A battery was a strong position that held one or more cannons.
Breastwork meant steep mounds of earth or stone with fences to stop attacking forces.
A quadrant is an area shaped like one quarter of a circle but, with 4 bulwarks facing outwards
as well, the quadrant fort at Vauxhall was really more like a star in shape.]