The subject of this design is the Ottoman Sultan, Abdulaziz [Abd-ul-aziz] who was born in 1830 and succeeded his brother Abdulmecid I to the Ottoman throne in 1861. In his early reign he followed his brother's reforming programme to modernise administration of the empire and to improve diplomatic relations with Western Europe. He was the first Sultan to visit Western Europe in 1867. However, his rule turned more absolutist after 1871 and he was deposed by the military in May 1876. He died in suspicious circumstances early in June 1876.