The Cabinet Papers banner

The build-up to war

The aftermath of a Japanese air raid on Shanghai in 1937.
The aftermath of a Japanese air raid on Shanghai in 1937.
©TopFoto

There were several conflicts involving the Axis Powers between 1935 and 1939, which challenged Britain's policy of appeasement and prefigured the Second World War.

Related documents

Italo-Abyssinian War

Search using Axis powers Spanish Civil War Sino-Japanese War

Further reading

  • Bickers, R., Britain in China: Community, Culture and Colonialism 1900-1949 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999)
  • Buchanan, T., Britain and the Spanish Civil War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997)
  • Hardie, F., The Abyssinian Crisis (Hamden, Conn: Archon Books, 1974)
  • McKercher, B.J.C., The Foreign Office, 1930-39: Strategy, Permanent Interests and National Security Contemporary British History 18, pp. 87-109 (2004) Contemporary British History
  • Williams, M., Mussolini's Secret War in the Mediterranean and the Middle East: Italian Intelligence and the British Response Intelligence and National Security 22, pp. 881-904 (2007) Intelligence and National Security