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The build-up to war

The aftermath of a Japanese air raid on Shanghai in 1937.
The aftermath of a Japanese air raid on Shanghai in 1937.

There were several conflicts involving the Axis Powers between 1935 and 1939, which challenged Britain's policy of appeasement and prefigured the Second World War.

Related documents

Italo-Abyssinian War

Search using Axis powers Spanish Civil War Sino-Japanese War

Further reading

  • Bickers, R., Britain in China: Community, Culture and Colonialism 1900-1949 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999)
  • Buchanan, T., Britain and the Spanish Civil War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997)
  • Hardie, F., The Abyssinian Crisis (Hamden, Conn: Archon Books, 1974)
  • McKercher, B.J.C., The Foreign Office, 1930-39: Strategy, Permanent Interests and National Security Contemporary British History 18, pp. 87-109 (2004) Contemporary British History
  • Williams, M., Mussolini's Secret War in the Mediterranean and the Middle East: Italian Intelligence and the British Response Intelligence and National Security 22, pp. 881-904 (2007) Intelligence and National Security
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