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Glossary - J

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Jack Jones

Trade union leader who became General Secretary of the Transport and General Workers' Union (TGWU) in 1968. Led union opposition to the Wilson and Heath governments' attempts to set up an incomes policy. Brokered the 'Social Contract' and played a large part in creating the Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS) in 1975. On retirement, became a champion of pensioners.

James Callaghan

Labour Prime Minister from 1976-1979 and the only person to have served in all four 'Great Offices of State'. As Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1964-1967 he dealt with the devaluation crisis. As Home Secretary from 1967-1970 he sent troops to Ulster. As Foreign Secretary from 1974-1976 he re-negotiated Britain's EU membership. Prime Minister from 1976-1979 he led a minority government through the 'Winter of Discontent'.

James Griffiths

Labour MP from 1936-1970. Trade union leader and the first ever Welsh Secretary in 1964. As Minister for National Insurance he introduced the Family Allowances Act. Along with Bevan, he was one of the chief architects of the NHS.

Jellicoe, Lord

British Admiral and Commander-in-Chief at the start of the First World War. Criticised at the time for losses at Jutland, he rendered the German high seas fleet ineffective for the rest of the war. Promoted to First Sea Lord and Admiral of the Fleet. Governor of New Zealand from 1920-1924.

Jennie Lee

Labour politician and daughter of a miner. Married Aneurin Bevan in 1934. As Britain's first Arts Minister in 1964, she doubled spending on the arts and set up the well-renowned Open University. When first elected in 1928 she was the youngest Labour MP, aged 24.

John Boyd-Carpenter

Conservative politician, MP for Kingston upon Thames from 1945-1972. Held Ministerial posts between 1951-1964. Chairman of the Public Accounts Committee between 1964-1970,  becoming a life peer in 1972. Member of the Parker Committee in 1972, exploring the interrogation of terror suspects.

John F. Kennedy

US President from 1961-1963. His 'New Frontier' aimed to modernise American social life for the poor and decrease racial segregation. Famous for standing up to Khrushchev over the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962 and the partial nuclear test ban in 1963. Sent the first US forces to South Vietnam. Assassinated in Texas in 1963, multiple theories about the assassination are still debated.

John Hodge

Labour MP from 1906-1923 and trade unionist in the Iron and Steel Industry. Minister of Labour from 1916-1917 and Minister of Pensions from 1917-1919 in Lloyd George's the First World War Coalition government. He opposed strike action and threatened strikers during the First World War with charges of treason. He also opposed the 1926 General Strike

John Maynard Keynes

British economist who believed governments had a duty to manage the economy. Was involved in discussions about funding the Welfare State during the Second World War and at Bretton Woods in 1944, which resulted in the creation of the IMF and the World Bank

John Sankey, Sir

Labour politician and eminent lawyer. Chair of the Sankey Commission, 1919, that recommended nationalisation of coal mines, although its proposals were side-stepped by Lloyd George. Became Lord Chancellor in Ramsay MacDonald's Labour and National governments

John Simon, Sir

Liberal politician who served in various offices. Chaired the Simon Commission on India's future between 1927-1931. Foreign Secretary and Home Secretary in the National Governments, responsible for the Public Order Act 1936 that restricted activities of Oswald Mosley's blackshirts

John Wheatley

British Labour MP who was Minister for Health in the 1924 Labour government. Responsible for a Housing Act, encouraging councils to build affordable municipal housing for the working classes to rent

John Wilmot

British Labour politician. First elected MP for Fulham East in 1933, and Minister of Supply from 1945-1947. On retiring from the Commons in 1950 he was made a peer

John Wolfenden, Sir

A British educationalist who chaired various government committees, mostly focussing on education and problems with youth. Best remembered for chairing the committee that produced the Wolfenden Report, published in 1957. It recommended the decriminalisation of homosexuality. Knighted in 1957, he died in 1985

Jomo Kenyatta

Kenyan statesman, President between 1964-1978. Set up the Kenyan African Union in the 1940s demanding independence from Britain. Jailed for seven years during the Mau Mau Rebellion, he was elected President of the Kenyan African National Union while in prison. Premier in 1963, his moderate policies helped reconcile white settlers to Kenyan independence

Joseph Stalin

Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet Dictator who succeeded Lenin in 1924. Famous for his 'Five Year Plans' which modernised the USSR at great cost to ordinary people. Played a leading role in the Second World War and the Cold War, before dying in 1953. Denounced by Khrushchev in 1956 for crimes against the Party

Julius Nyerere

Respected Tanzanian statesman. He successfully reorganised nationalists into the Tanganyika National Union between 1954-1955. Became premier when Tanganyika was granted internal self-rule in 1961 and, on independence, President between 1962-1985. He negotiated the union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar as Tanzania in 1964. He followed a path of socialism and self-reliance

Justice Danckwerts

Sir Harold Otto Danckwerts (1888-1978), Lord Justice of Appeal who arbitrated between the Ministry of Health and GPs over the level of remuneration under the new NHS in 1952

Justices of the Peace

Judicial officers appointed to keep the peace. Appointed from ordinary citizens, they dispense summary justice dealing with less-important cases of common law, and deal with local administrative applications (such as licensing laws)

Jutland

The western continental part of Denmark