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Glossary - I

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Iain MacLeod

November 1913 - July 1970. Ian MacLeod was a British Conservative Party politician and government minister. In the Eden and Macmillan governments he served first as Minister of Labour and National Service (1957-1959) and then as Secretary of State for the Colonies (1959-1961). MacLeod was against the death penalty and supported legalisation of abortion and homosexuality. Indicative of his centrist leanings, MacLeod established good personal relations with several Labour polititians. He was also one of the great British bridge players; winning the Gold Cup in 1937 and authoring a book, Bridge is an Easy Game.

Ian Smith

Rhodesian politician and Prime Minister from 1964-1979. In 1961 he founded the Rhodesian Front, dedicated to immediate independence without African majority rule. As premier he unilaterally declared independence from Britain, leading to economic sanctions imposed by the UN. British PM Harold Wilson tried to negotiate a settlement without success

Idi Amin

Ugandan Dictator. Instigated a brutal regime from 1970-1979 following a coup. Expelled all Uganda's Asians, seized their assets and created an international crisis. Overthrown by Tanzanian troops in 1979 following an ill-advised attempt to annex part of Tanzania. Fled and spent the rest of his life in exile, latterly in Saudi Arabia

imperial preference

System of trading deals where colonies and dominions have lower rates of import tariffs than other countries, stimulating trade within an Empire. Briefly popular in England in the 1900s and implemented in the Ottawa Agreement of 1932.  An attempt to beat the Great Depression

Imphal

City in north-eastern India

Inchon Landing, The

Scene of a decisive amphibious landing and battle during the Korean War. In September 1950 UN forces secured Inchon in South Korea, ending a string of victories by the North Korean Peoples' Army. It began a counter-attack that led to the recapture of Seoul, ending near the Yalu River

Indian National Congress

Formed in 1885 as an educational organisation and to train Indians in government. Became the leading nationalist organisation under Ghandi in the 1920s and 1930s and developed an effective non-violent strategy to defy the British. Became the governing party of India from independence until 1977

indirect government

Indirect government involved using local chiefs to implement colonial policies, based on the 'Lugard Rules' developed in Nigeria from 1912 for running colonies based upon traditional native institutions. The Colonial Power remained in charge, taking the key decisions, but the traditional authorities were left with the appearance of power

International Court of Justice

The principle court of justice of the United Nations (UN), situated in the Hague, Holland. Has limited powers: can only deal with cases referred to it as breaches of the UN Covenants, and decisions can only be enforced if the nations involved agree in advance to accept the decision reached

Irish Party

Also known as the Irish Parliamentary Party. Set up by Charles Stewart Parnell in 1882, it was at the forefront of the Home Rule movement in Parliament until overtaken by Sinn Fein in the 1918 elections, where it lost practically all its seats